مدلسازی رقابت توأم توق (Xanthium strumarium) و تاج خروس (Amaranthus retroflexus) در سویا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشگاه

2 استاد دانشگاه تهرلن

3 محقق

چکیده

به منظور بررسی جنبه های مختلف رقابت علف‌های هرز توق و تاج خروس در تراکم‌های منفرد و توأم با سویا آزمایش هایی در سال 1386 و 1387درمزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران در قالب طرح فاکتوریل بر پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. در این آزمایش تداخل دو گونه توق (در تراکم‌های صفر، 2، 4 و 8 بوته در متر ردیف سویا) و تاج خروس (در تراکم‌های صفر، 4، 8 و12 بوته در متر ردیف سویا) در قالب 16 تیمار مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که تداخل توام توق و تاج خروس در تراکم حداکثر هر کدام از آنها به ترتیب 86 و70 درصد در سال اول و دوم عملکرد دانه سویا را کاهش داد. همچنین نتایج مقایسه قدرت رقابتی توق و تاج خروس نشان داد که تاثیر توق بر عملکرد دانه بیشتر از تاج خروس بود. بطوریکه اثر تداخل هر بوته توق بر عملکرد دانه سویا در سال اول و دوم آزمایش به ترتیب برابر با 37/2 و 91/1 بوته تاج خروس بود. تراکمی از توق که موجب 50 درصد کاهش عملکرد در سویا شد در سال اول و دوم به ترتیب 3/2 و 25/6بوته در متر ردیف بود. در حالی که در تداخل با تاج خروس 50% کاهش عملکرد برای سال اول و دوم به ترتیب در تراکم 9/5 و 19/12 بوته در متر ردیف اتفاق افتاد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Model for Multiple Weed Competition of Common Cocklebur and Redroot Pigweed in Soybean

نویسندگان [English]

  • ali yousefi 1
  • Hassan َAlizadeh 2
  • mohammad baghestani 3
  • hamid rahimian 1
چکیده [English]

The presence of weed in soybean is a serious threat to crop yield. Little research has addressed multiple weed species interference in soybean. Field experiments were conducted at the Research Farm of University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran, during the growing season of 2007 and 2008 to determine the influence of density of single and multispecies populations of common cocklebur and redroot pigweed on soybean yield and competitive abilities of weeds. Common cocklebur and redroot pigweed seeds were sown concurrently with soybean and established at selected density within 15 cm on either side of soybean row. The experimental design was factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that soybean grain yield was significantly affected by weed competition. Soybean yield loss due to competition was 86% and 70% in first and second experiment, respectively. Soybean yield was affected more by common cocklebur than by redroot pigweed. Common cocklebur at a density of 2.3( in 2007) and 6.25(in 2008) plants per m-1 of row reduced soybean yield by 50%. In contrast, same reduction in soybean yield from redroot pigweed was obtained at density of 5.9 and 12.1 in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Competitive effect of common cocklebur was equivalent with 2.37 and 1.91 plant of redroot pigweed density in 2007 and 2008, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Multiple weed species interference
  • Common cocklebur
  • redroot pigweed

Bensch, C. N., Horak, M. J. and Peterson, D. 2003. Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), Palmer amaranth (A. palmeri), and common waterhemp (A. rudis) in soybean. Weed Sci. 51: 37–43.

Byrd, J. D. and Coble, H. D. 1991. Interference of selected weeds in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Technol. 5: 263-269.

Chhokar, S. R. and Rajender, B. S. 1999. Competition and control of weed in soybean. Weed Sci. 47:107-111.

Cousens, R. 1985. A simple model relating yield loss to weed density. Ann. Appl. Biol. 107: 239-252.

Cown, p., Weaver, S. E. and Swanton C. J. 1998. Interference between pigweed (Amaranthus spp) barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-gali) and soybean (Glycine max). Weed Sci. 46: 535-539.

Fu, R and Ashley, R. A. 2006. Interference of large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and hairy galinsoga (Galinsoga ciliata) with bell pepper. Weed Sci. 54: 364-372

Hager, A. G., Wax, L. M., Stoller, E., W. and Bollero, G. A. 2002. Common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) interference in soybean. Weed Sci. 50: 607-610.

Hamaya, K., Ishida, M., Oka, H., Haruna K., Isobe, K., and Ishii, R. 2007. Effects of high ground-water level on the growth and yield of supernodulating soybean cultivar,Sakukei4. Plant Prot. Sci. 10: 478-480

Hock, M. S., Knezevic, S. Z. and Martin, A. R.  2006. Soybean row spacing and weed emergence time influence weed competitiveness and competitive indices.Weed Sci. 54: 38–46.

Kim, S., Marshall, E. J. P., Caseley, J. C. and Barain, P.2006. Modelling interactions between herbicide dose and multiple weed species interference in crop–weed competition. Weed Res. 46: 175–184.

Marwat, K. B. and Nafziger, E. D.. 1990. Cocklebur and velvetleaf interference with soybean grown at different densities and planting patterns. Agron. J. 82: 531–534.

Mortensen, D. A. and Coble, H. D. 1989. The influence of soil water content on common cocklebur (Xanthium stramonium) interference in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Sci. 37: 76–83.

Neeser, C., Dille, J. A., Krishnan, G., Mortensen, D. A., Rawlinson, J. T., Martin, A. R. and Bills, L. B. 2004. WeedSOFTt: a weed management decision support system. Weed Sci. 52:115–122.

Nelson, J. E. and Fawcett, R. S. 1981. Cocklebur. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Extension Bulletin PM-749.

Norris, R. F., Elmore, C. L., Rejmank, M. and Akey, W. C. 2001. Spatial arrangement, density, and competition between barnyardgrass and tomato: I. Crop growth and yield. Weed Sci. 49: 61-68.

Peterson, D. E. and Nalewaja, J. D. 1992. Environment influences green foxtail (Setaria viridis) competition with wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Technol. 6: 607-610.

Rawls , W. J., Pachepsky, Y. A., Ritchie J. C., Sobecki, T. M., Bloodworthc, H. 2003. Effect of soil organic carbon on soil water retention. Geoderma. 116: 61– 76

Regnier, E. E. and Stoller, E. W. 1989. The effects of soybean (Glycine max) interference on the canopy architecture of common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Sci. 37:187–195.

Royal, S. S., Brecke, B. J. and Colvin, D. L. 1997. Common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) interference with peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Weed Sci. 45:38–43.

Snipes, C. E., Street, J. E. and Walker, R. H. 1987. Interference periods of common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Sci. 35:529-532.

Swinton, S. M., Buhler, D. D., Forcella, F., Gunsolus, J. L. and King, R. P. 1994. Estimation of crop yield loss due to interference by multiple weed spicies. Weed Sci. 42: 103-109.

Tolerr, J. E., Guice, B. and Murdock, E. C. 1996. Interference between johnsongrass, pigweed and soybean. Weed Sci. 44: 331-338 .

Tranel, P. J., Jeschke, M. R., Wassom, J. J., Maxwell, D. J. and Wax, L. M. 2003. Variation in soybean interference among common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) accessions. Crop Prot. 22:375-380.

Wilson B. J., Wright, K. J., Brain, P., Clements, M. and E. Stephens.1995. Predicting the competitive effects of weed and crop density on weed biomass, weed seed production and crop yield in wheat. Weed Res. 35: 265–278.

Zimdahl, R. L. 2004. Weed-crop competition: a review —2nd ed. Blackwell Publishing.