بررسی اثر چهار گیاه پوششی بر مدیریت علف‌های‌هرز در باغات آلو (Prunus domestica) در شهرستان ارومیه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی ارومیه

2 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی خراسان رضوی

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر گیاهان پوششی زمستانه و روش­های مدیریت بقایای آنها بر تراکم و‌ وزن خشک علف­های هرز، آزمایشی طی دو سال زراعی 1394-1392 در یک باغ آلو (Prunus domestica) در شهرستان ارومیه اجرا شد. آزمایش با آرایش تیماری کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارها شامل ترکیب چهار گونه گیاه پوششی شامل‌ چاودار Secale cereale))،‌ شبدر ایرانی (Trifolium resupintumکلزا (Brassica napus) وجو (Hordeum vulgare) در کرت­های اصلی و دو روش مدیریت بقایا شامل استفاده از موور و روتیواتور در کرت­های فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین و کمترینوزن خشک گیاهان پوششی، به ترتیب به چاودار (275 گرم بر مترمربع) و شبدر (97 گرم بر مترمربع) و نیز بیشترینو کمترینشاخص سطح برگ گیاهان پوششی، به ترتیب به چاودار (5/3) و شبدر (4/1) تعلق داشت. مقایسه تیمارهای استفاده از روتیواتور و کف­بر کردن نشان داد که روتیواتور بهتر از کف بر کردن، تراکم علف‌های‌هرز (67 درصد) و وزن خشک کل علف‌های‌هرز (31 درصد) را کاهش داد. به طور کلی، کاشت چاودار و جو, به همراه استفاده از روتیواتور، بهترین راهکار قابل توصیه برای کنترل علف‌های‌هرز در باغات آلواست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study the Effect of Four Cover Crops on the Weed Management in Plum (Prunus domestic) Orchards in Urmia

نویسندگان [English]

  • naser Jafarzadeh 1
  • Moahammad Bazoubandi 2
1 Plant Protection Research Department, West Azarbayjan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, IRAN
2 Assistant of Agriculture Research and Education Centre of Razavi Khorasan, AREEO, IRAN
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effects of winter cover crops and their management on the density and dry matter of weeds in plum orchards, an experiment was conducted during 2014-2015 in Urmia. The experiment was performed in the randomized complete block design with spilt plot arrangement. Four cover crops in main plots included: ryegrass
(Secale cereale L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oilseed (Brassica napus L.) and clover (Trifolium resupintum L.) and management methods including cutting- off cover crops and using rotivator in sub –plots were experimental treatments. According to the results, the highest and lowestdry matter of cover crops belonged to ryegrass (275 gr.m-2) and clover (97 gr.m-2) and the highest and lowest leaf area index were observed in ryegrass (3.5) and clover (1.4) respectively. Comparison of cutting- off cover crop and rotivator revealed that rotivator’s effect on weed density (%67) and dry matter (%31) is more effective than cutting-off cover crops. Totally, results of this study revealed thatryegrass and barley planting as cover crops, along with using rotivator, is the best recommended method for weed control in Urmia plum orchards.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Barley
  • clover
  • oilseed
  • Rye
Altieri, M.A., Wilson, R.C. and Schmidt, L.L. 1985. The effect of living mulches and weed cover on the dynamics on foliage and soil arthropod communities in three crop systems. Crop Protec. 4: 201-213.

Arzani, K. and Imani, A. 1998. Importance of planting fruit orchards and effective factors in orchards industrial. Amozesh Keshavarzi Press (In Persian).

Bond, W.R., Turner, J. and Grundy, A.C. 2003. A review of non-chemical weed mamngement. H.D.R.A. the organic organization. Rye to organic garden. U.K. 81 pp.

Calkins, J.B. and Swanson, B. 1995.Comparison of conventional and alternative weed management strategies. Weed Technol. 9:761-767.

Farzanian, R., Pirdashty, H., and Niknezhad, Y. 2011. Effect of different cover crops on weed control in citrus orchards. Iranian J. Weed Sci. 7(1):67-77.(In Persian with summary English).

Faulkner, E.H. 1943. Plowmans Folly. University of Oklahoma Press. Norman. 156 PP.

Gallandt, E., Molloy, R. Lynch, R.P., and Drummond, F.A. 2005. Effect of cover cropping system on invertebrates seed predation. Weed Sci. 53:69-76.

Gregg, A.j., Michael, S.D. and Zane, R.H. 1993. Cover crop management and weed control in corn (Zea mays). Weed Technol. 7: 425-430.

Hartwing, N.L. and Ammon, H.U. 2002. Cover crop and living mulches. Weed Sci. 50: 204-213.

Heydari Yazadi, S.M., Alimoradi, L., and Kelarestaghi, K. 2011. Evaluation of weed management methods in citrus orchards. Weed Ecolo. 1(2): 77-90.

Knezevic, S.Z., Evans, S.P., Blankenship, E.E., VanAcker, R.C., and Lindquist, J.L. 2002. Critical period for weed control: the concept and data analysis. Weed Sci. 50: 773-786.

Mennan, H., Ngouajio, M., Isik, D. and Kaya, E. 2005. Effects of alternative management systems on weed populations in hazelnut (Corylusavellana L.). Crop Protec. 24(6): 521-526.

Mohammddoust Chamanabad, H.R., Rafeie,S. and Asgharii, A. 2015. Effect of cover crop on weed density and weed biomass in tomato. Sustain. Agri. Produc. Sci.4: 75-86. (In Persian with summary English).

Najafi, H. 2013. Effect of autum and spring sown cover crops on weed control in sugar beet. Iranian J. crop Sci.14(4): 370-382.(In Persian with summary English).

Najafi, H. 2007. Non-chemical weed management. Danesh Press (In Persian) 200 Pp.

Sainju, U.M. 1997. Winter cover crops for sustainable agriculture systems. Horti. Sci. 2: 21-28.

Olorunmiye, P.M., Egberongbe, K., Adeoye, R.P.O., Alamu, O.O. and Taiwo, S.T. 2011. Weed species composition of citrus-based cropping system at National Horticultural Research Institute Ibadan, Nigria. Agri. and Bio. of North Ame. 2(3):529-537.

Samadi, F. andMohammaddoust Chamanabd, H.R. 2014. Effect of cover crops and planting row on weed control and potato yield. J. plant protect. 27(4): 434-441.(In Persian with summary English).

Samedani, B. 2005. Weed suppressive ability of cover crops in oil palm plantation. Proceedings of the 6th Iranian weed science congress. Birjand. Iran. (In Persian).

Samedani, B. and Rahimian, H. 2006. Effect of cover crops mulch on weed control in orchards. Pakistan Weed Sci. 12(4): 347-352.

Samedani, B. Rahimian, H. and Shahabian, M. 2006. Use of cover crop for weed management in orchards as compared to chemical and mechanical weed control. Agric. Sci. Natur. Resour. 12(5): 144-152.

Sams, C.E.1999.Preharvest factors ofaffecting post harvest texture. Post harvestBiol. Techno. 15: 249-254.

Smith, M.W., Carroll, B.L. and Chery, B.S. 2000. Mulch improves pecan tree growth during orchard establishment. Horti. Sci. 35: 192-195.

Tokasi, S., Rashed Mohassel, M.H., Rezvani Moghddam, P., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Aghajanzadeh, S. and Kazerooni Monfared, E. 2008. Orange orchard weeds management using cover crops and rice mulch. Iranian Field Crops Res. 6(1): 49-57. (In Persian with summary English).

Weston, L.A. 1990. Cover crop and herbicide influence on row crop seedling establishment in no-tillage. Weed Sci. 38: 166-171.

Zand, A., Rahimian, H., Koochaki, A., Khalaghani, J., Mousavi, M.S. and Ramazani, K. 2004. Weed Ecology (Implication for management). Jahad daneshgahi Mashhad Press. 560 Pp.(In Persian).

Zare Hosseini, H., Ghorbani, R., Rashed Mohassel, M.H. and Rahimi, H. 2014. Effects of weed management strategies on weed density and biomass and saffron (Crocus sativus) tield. Saffron Agron. Techno. 2(1): 45-58.(In Persian with summary English).

Zarefeizabadi, A., Khazaei, H. and Hosseinpour, M. 2011. Effect of different management methods of cover crops in pistachio orchards weed control. Proceedings of the 4th Iranian weed science congress. Ahvaz. Iran.(In Persian with summary English).