غربال‌گری علف‌کش‌ها برای کنترل شیمیایی علف‌هرز مهاجم سل‌واش (Monochoria vaginalis) در شالیزار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه گیلان

2 دانشیار موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور

3 استاد دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

سل‌واش، علف‌هرز مهاجم مزارع برنج است که سه دهه پس از ورود به شالیزارهای شمال کشور، اکنون ده‌ها هزار هکتار از مزارع برنج را آلوده کرده‌است. رویش دیرهنگام، سایه‌پسندی، تحمل به غرقاب و تکمیل چرخه زندگی پس از برداشت برنج، امکان فرار سل‌واش از شیوه‌های‌ رایج مدیریت علف‌های‌‌هرز شالیزار را فراهم‌ می‌آورد. در سال 1396، کارایی برخی علف‌کش‌ها در کنترل شیمیایی سل‌واش در شرایط گلدانی و مزرعه‌ای، در موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور بررسی شد. نتایج آزمایش گلدانی نشان داد که کارایی علف‌کش‌های خاک‌مصرف پس‌رویشی فلوستوسولفورون، پیرازوسولفورون‌اتیل، بنزوبیسایکلون، پیرازوسولفورون‌اتیل + پرتیلاکلر، پیرازوسولفورون‌اتیل + کوئین‌کلوراک و تریافامون + اتوکسی‌سولفورون در کاهش زیست‌توده گیاهچه‌های 2 تا 3 برگی سل‌واش، بیشتر یا مساوی از 90 درصد و کارایی علف‌کش‌های ایپفن‌کاربازون، تیوبنکارب، پندی‌متالین، پرتیلاکلر، اگزادیارژیل و پیرازوسولفورون‌اتیل (WG 75%)، کمتر یا برابر 55 درصد بود. در آزمایش مزرعه‌ای، علف‌کش‌های برگ‌پاش توفوردی، دیکامبا + توفوردی، بیس‌پایریباک‌سدیم (فرمولاسیون‌های  SC 40%وSC 12.5% )، پیری‌بنزوکسیم و تریافامون + اتوکسی‌سولفورون دارای کارایی بسیار خوب (90%≤) و علف‌کش پروپانیل با 23 درصد کاهش زیست‌توده، دارای کارایی ضعیفی در کنترل این علف‌هرز بود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Herbicides screening for chemical control of Monochoria, the invasive weed, (Monochoria vaginalis) in paddy rice

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Hazrati 1
  • Bijan Yaghoubi 2
  • Jafar Asghari 3
1 M.Sc. Student, Agronomy and plant breeding department, University of Guilan
3 Professor, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan
چکیده [English]

Monochoria vaginalis is an invasive weed of paddy rice fields and now has infested tens of thousands of hectares of rice fields in north, three decades after being reported for the first time in Iran. Late emergence, fast growing under rice canopy, flood tolerance and completion of life cycle after rice harvesting, allows monochoriato survive and escape from the common weed management practices in paddy rice. The efficacy of some herbicides for chemical control of monochoriain pot and field conditions were investigated in Rice Research Institute of Iran in 2017. The results of pot experiment showed that early post application (2-3 leaf stage) of soil applied herbicides including flucetosulfuron, pyrazosulfuron, benzobicyclon, pyrazosulfuron + quinclorac, triafamone + ethoxysulfuron controlled monochoriaeffectively (≥90%). Other herbicides including ipfencarbazone, thiobencarb, pendimethalin, pretilachlor, oxadiargyl and pyrazosulfuron (WG 75%) with  55% reduction in monochoriabiomass were not satisfactorily effective. In the field experiment, foliar application of 2,4-D, dicamba + 2,4-D, bispyribacsodium, pyribenzoximand triafamone + ethoxysulfuron reduced monochoriabiomass 90% While propanil with 23% control had a poor performance in controlling of his weed.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Broadleaf killer
  • foliar applied
  • rice
  • soil applied
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