رقابت زود هنگام ریشه و اندام های هوایی بین ارقام غلات بهاره با علف هرز خردل

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 محقق

2 استاد دانشگاه

چکیده

در مدیریت علف های هرز، استفاده از ارقامی باا وااااایی رقاابتی بااا از ابرارهاا یی اسات ها بارای هااه مصار علف ه های شیمیایی استفاده می شاد. این بررسی بمنظار شناسایی ویژگای هاای ااادا هاای هااایی و زیرزمینای داا رست غلات ه سبب وشخیص ارقا رقیب از غیر رقیب آاها می شاد، در اواق رشد ااجا شد. برای این منظاار دوازده رقم )ش رقم رقیب و ش رقم غیر رقیب( غلات شامل گند ، یاا زراعی، جا دو ردیف و ش ردیفا در حضار و غیاب خردل وحشی هشت گردید. اتایج اشان داد ه اثرات بازدارادگی ارقا رقیب وا 3 هفت پس از رویا خردل وحشی بر رشد علف هرز بروز اکرد. در بین غلات مارد بررسی، ونها یاا زراعی از قدرت رقاابتی بیشاتری اسبت ب جا دو ردیف برخاردار باد و سایر غلات با یکدیگر وفاوت معنی داری اشان اداداد. حضار خردل وحشای در مجاورت جا دو ردیف و یاا زراعی اثر منفی بر رشد اادا های هاایی این دو گیاه زراعی گذاشت، ولای وااثیری بار رشد اادا های زیرزمینی آاها اداشت. اتایج اشان داد ه در مجماع، رقابت هاایی بین خردل وحشی با غلات ماارد بررسی زودور از رقابت زیرزمینی شروع می شاد. در حضار خردل وحشی ونها ارقا رقیب یاا زراعی و گند از رشد اادا های هاایی بیشتری اسبت ب ارقا غیر رقیب برخاردار باداد. اتایج اشان داد ه امکان ااتخاب ارقاا رقیاب از غیر رقیب گند و یاا زراعی با استفاده از ویژگی های هاایی و زیرزمینی داا رست آاها امکان پذیر می باشد.

عنوان مقاله [English]

Early Root and Shoot Competition between Spring Cereal Cultivars and Wild Mustard (Brassica kaber)

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohammad baghestani 1
  • claudel lemieux 2
  • llesْGi leroux 2
چکیده [English]

The use of more competitive species and cultivars in small grain cereal production may help to develop production systems that require less herbicide. This study was designed to identify root and shoot characteristics of cereal seedlings that would allow distinguishing the more competitive (MC) cultivars from the less competitive (LC) ones. Two growth cabinet trials were conducted using four crops: two-row barley, six-row barley, oat, and wheat. A total of twelve cultivars (six classified a priori as MC and six classified a priori as LC) were grown with and without wild mustard. The inhibitory effects of the MC cultivars on wild mustard growth were not systematically larger than those of the LC cultivars at 3 weeks after emergence. Oat was found to be more competitive than two-row and six-row barley. Wild mustard adversely affected the above-ground growth of two-row barley and oat but had no effect on below-ground growth; shoot competition may precede root competition. For two-row barley, oat, and wheat competing with wild mustard,   Correspondence to : M.A. Baghestani Meybodi , E-mail: Baghestani@ppdri.ac.ir M.A. Baghestani-Meybodi et al. growth of MC cultivars was superior to that of LC cultivars. Only MC oat and wheat cultivars produced more above- and below-ground growth than LC cultivars while exerting a greater competitive effect on wild mustard growth. These results suggest that it may be possible to select oat and wheat cultivars for greater competitive ability against wild mustard based on root and shoot characteristics

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Small grain cereals
  • crop competitive ability
  • cultivar competitive ability
Arnone III, J.A. & Kestenholz, C. 1997. Root competition and elevated CO2: effects on

seedling growth in

Linum usitatissimum populations & Linim-siliene cretica mixtures.

Functtional Ecology

11: 209-214.

Baghestani, A., Lemieux, C., Leroux, G.D, Baziramakenga, R. & Simard, R.R. 1999.

Determination of allelochemicals in spring cereal cultivars of different competitiveness.

 

Weed Science

47: 498-504.

Bozsa, R.C. & Oliver, L.R. 1990. Competitive mechanisms of common cocklebur

(

Xanthium strumarium) and soybean (Glycine max) during seedling growth. Weed

Science

38: 34-350.

Callaway, M.B. 1992. A compendium of crop varietal tolerance to weeds.

Amrican Journal

of Alternative Agriculture

7: 169-180.

M.A. Baghestani-Meybodi

et al.

Challaiah, R.E., Burnside, O.C., Wicks G.A. & Johnson V.A. 1986. Competition between

winter wheat (

Triticum aestivum) cultivars and downy brome (Bromus tectorum). Weed

Science

34: 689-693.

Christensen, S. 1995. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties.

Weed Reserach

35

: 241-247.

Dahl, G.K., Dexter A.G. & Nalewaja, J.D. 1982. Wild mustard competition and control in

wheat. In: Proceedings of North Central Weed Control Conference (NCWCC), 7-9 Dec.,

1982. Indianapolis, Indiana

37: 2323.

Dunan, C.M., & Zimdahl, R.L. 1991. Competitive ability of wild oat (

Avena fatua) and

barley (

Hordeum vulgare). Weed Science 39: 558-563.

Evetts, L.L., & Burnside, O.C. 1973. Early root & shoot development of nine plant species.

 

Weed Science

21: 289-291.

Grundy, A.C., & Froud-Williams, R.J. 1993. The use of cultivar, crop seed rate and

nitrogen level for the suppression of weeds in winter wheat. Proceedings of Brighton

Crop Protection Conference

Weeds. pp 997-1002.

Hackett, C. 1969. A study of the root system of barley. II. Relationships between root

dimensions and nutrient uptake.

New Phytology 68: 1023-1030.

Hallberg, G.R. 1987. Agricultural chemicals in ground water: extent and implication.

 

Amrican Journal of Alternative Agriculture

2: 3-15.

Holm, L.J., Doll., Holm, E., Pancho, J. & Herberger, J. 1997. World Weeds: Natural 370.

Histories and Distribution. John Wiley & Sons. 1129 p.

James, K.L., Banks, P.A. & Karnok, K.J. 1988. Interference of soyabean, Glycine max,

cultivars with Sicklepod, Cassia obtusifolia.

Weed Technology 2: 404-409.

Liebman, M. & Robichaux, H. 1990. Competition by barley and pea against mustard:

effects on resource acquisition, photosynthesis and yield.

Agricultural Ecosystem.

Environment

31:155-172.

Mian, M.A.R., Nafziger, E.D., Kolb, F.L., & Teyker, R.H. 1993. Root growth of wheat

genotypes in hydroponic culture and in the greenhouse under different soil moisture

regimes.

Crop Science 33: 283-286.

Mian, M.A.R., Nafziger, E.D. Kolb, F.L. & Teyker, R.H. 1994. Root size and distribution

of field-grown wheat genotypes.

Crop Science 34: 810-812. 381

Monks, D. W., Oliver, L. R. & Bozsa, R. C. 1988. Seedling growth of soybeans (

Glycine

max

) and selected weeds. Weed Science 36: 167-171.

Moss, S. R. 1985. The influence of crop variety & seed rate on Alopecurus 384

myosuroides competition in winter cereals. British Crop Protection Conference

Weeds.

7A- 5: 701

708. 386

Pavlychenko, T.K. 1937. Quantitative study of the entire root systems of weed and crop

plants under field conditions.

Ecology 18: 62-79.

Iranian Journal of Weed Science

(2005), Volume 1, No., 1, 19-40

Preradov-Odobasic, A. 1997.

Évaluation des cultivars de céréales de printemps à l’éard

desmauvaises herbes. Mémoire de maîtrise. Département de phytologie, Université

Laval, Canada. 86 p.

Richards, M.C. & Davies, D.H.K. 1991. Potential for reducing herbicide inputs/rates with

more competitive cereal cultivars. Proceedings of Brighton Crop Protection Conference-

Weeds. 1233

1240.

Römer, W., Augustin, J. & Schiling, G. 1988. The relationship between phosphate

absorption and root length in nine wheat cultivars. Plant & Soil 111: 199-201.

Rooney, J. M. 1991. Influence of growth form of

Avena fatua L., on the growth and yield

of

Triticum aestivum L. Annual Applied Biology 118: 411-416.

SAS Institute Inc. 1989. SAS/STATS® User’s guide, Version 6, Fourth Edition, Volume 1.

943 p.

Steel, R.G.D. & Torrie, J. H. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. A biometrical

approach, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill Inc. New York. 633 p.

Tacq, J. 1997. Multivariate analysis techniques in social science research. SAGE

Publications Ltd., London. 411 p.

Verschwele, A. & Niemann, P. 1994. Indirect weed control by selection of wheat

cultivars. In: Maîtrise des Adventices par Voie Non Chimique. Communications de la

quatrième conférence internationale (J.M. Thomas, ed.). I.F.O.A.M., 5

9 Juillet 4.993.

Dijon, France. Pp. 269-273.

Wang, X. & Below, F.E. 1992. Root growth, nitrogen uptake, and tillering of wheat

induced by mixed-nitrogen source.

Crop Science 32: 997-1002.

Warwick, S.I., Beckie, H.J., Thomas A.G. & McDonald T. 2000. The biology of Canadian

weeds. 8.

Sinapis arvensis L. (updated). Canadian Journal of Plant Science 55: 171183.

Wicks G. A., Ramsel, R. E., Nordquist, P. T., Schmidt, J. W. & Challaiah, O. C. 1986.

Impact of wheat cultivars on establishment and suppression of summer annual weeds.

 

Agronomy Journal

78: 59-62.

Wilson, J. B. 1988. Shoot competition & root competition.

Journal of Applied Ecology 25:

279-296.

Wortmann, C.S. 1993. Contribution of bean morphological characteristics to weed

suppression.

Agronomy Journal 85: 840-843.

Zimdahl, R.L. 1980. Weed-crop competition: a review. International Plant Protection

Center. Oregon State University. USA. 195 p.

Arnone III, J.A. & Kestenholz, C. 1997. Root competition and elevated CO2: effects on

seedling growth in

Linum usitatissimum populations & Linim-siliene cretica mixtures.

Functtional Ecology

11: 209-214.

Baghestani, A., Lemieux, C., Leroux, G.D, Baziramakenga, R. & Simard, R.R. 1999.

Determination of allelochemicals in spring cereal cultivars of different competitiveness.

Weed Science

47: 498-504.

Bozsa, R.C. & Oliver, L.R. 1990. Competitive mechanisms of common cocklebur

(

Xanthium strumarium) and soybean (Glycine max) during seedling growth. Weed

Science

38: 34-350.

Callaway, M.B. 1992. A compendium of crop varietal tolerance to weeds.

Amrican Journal

of Alternative Agriculture

7: 169-180.

M.A. Baghestani-Meybodi

et al.

Challaiah, R.E., Burnside, O.C., Wicks G.A. & Johnson V.A. 1986. Competition between

winter wheat (

Triticum aestivum) cultivars and downy brome (Bromus tectorum). Weed

Science

34: 689-693.

Christensen, S. 1995. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties.

Weed Reserach

35

: 241-247.

Dahl, G.K., Dexter A.G. & Nalewaja, J.D. 1982. Wild mustard competition and control in

wheat. In: Proceedings of North Central Weed Control Conference (NCWCC), 7-9 Dec.,

1982. Indianapolis, Indiana

37: 2323.

Dunan, C.M., & Zimdahl, R.L. 1991. Competitive ability of wild oat (

Avena fatua) and

barley (

Hordeum vulgare). Weed Science 39: 558-563.

Evetts, L.L., & Burnside, O.C. 1973. Early root & shoot development of nine plant species.

Weed Science

21: 289-291.

Grundy, A.C., & Froud-Williams, R.J. 1993. The use of cultivar, crop seed rate and

nitrogen level for the suppression of weeds in winter wheat. Proceedings of Brighton

Crop Protection Conference

Weeds. pp 997-1002.

Hackett, C. 1969. A study of the root system of barley. II. Relationships between root

dimensions and nutrient uptake.

New Phytology 68: 1023-1030.

Hallberg, G.R. 1987. Agricultural chemicals in ground water: extent and implication.

Amrican Journal of Alternative Agriculture

2: 3-15.

Holm, L.J., Doll., Holm, E., Pancho, J. & Herberger, J. 1997. World Weeds: Natural 370.

Histories and Distribution. John Wiley & Sons. 1129 p.

James, K.L., Banks, P.A. & Karnok, K.J. 1988. Interference of soyabean, Glycine max,

cultivars with Sicklepod, Cassia obtusifolia.

Weed Technology 2: 404-409.

Liebman, M. & Robichaux, H. 1990. Competition by barley and pea against mustard:

effects on resource acquisition, photosynthesis and yield.

Agricultural Ecosystem.

Environment

31:155-172.

Mian, M.A.R., Nafziger, E.D., Kolb, F.L., & Teyker, R.H. 1993. Root growth of wheat

genotypes in hydroponic culture and in the greenhouse under different soil moisture

regimes.

Crop Science 33: 283-286.

Mian, M.A.R., Nafziger, E.D. Kolb, F.L. & Teyker, R.H. 1994. Root size and distribution

of field-grown wheat genotypes.

Crop Science 34: 810-812. 381

Monks, D. W., Oliver, L. R. & Bozsa, R. C. 1988. Seedling growth of soybeans (

Glycine

max

) and selected weeds. Weed Science 36: 167-171.

Moss, S. R. 1985. The influence of crop variety & seed rate on Alopecurus 384

myosuroides competition in winter cereals. British Crop Protection Conference

Weeds.

7A- 5: 701

708. 386

Pavlychenko, T.K. 1937. Quantitative study of the entire root systems of weed and crop

plants under field conditions.

Ecology 18: 62-79.

Iranian Journal of Weed Science

(2005), Volume 1, No., 1, 19-40

Preradov-Odobasic, A. 1997.

Évaluation des cultivars de céréales de printemps à l’éard

desmauvaises herbes. Mémoire de maîtrise. Département de phytologie, Université

Laval, Canada. 86 p.

Richards, M.C. & Davies, D.H.K. 1991. Potential for reducing herbicide inputs/rates with

more competitive cereal cultivars. Proceedings of Brighton Crop Protection Conference-

Weeds. 1233

1240.

Römer, W., Augustin, J. & Schiling, G. 1988. The relationship between phosphate

absorption and root length in nine wheat cultivars. Plant & Soil 111: 199-201.

Rooney, J. M. 1991. Influence of growth form of

Avena fatua L., on the growth and yield

of

Triticum aestivum L. Annual Applied Biology 118: 411-416.

SAS Institute Inc. 1989. SAS/STATS® User’s guide, Version 6, Fourth Edition, Volume 1.

943 p.

Steel, R.G.D. & Torrie, J. H. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. A biometrical

approach, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill Inc. New York. 633 p.

Tacq, J. 1997. Multivariate analysis techniques in social science research. SAGE

Publications Ltd., London. 411 p.

Verschwele, A. & Niemann, P. 1994. Indirect weed control by selection of wheat

cultivars. In: Maîtrise des Adventices par Voie Non Chimique. Communications de la

quatrième conférence internationale (J.M. Thomas, ed.). I.F.O.A.M., 5

9 Juillet 4.993.

Dijon, France. Pp. 269-273.

Wang, X. & Below, F.E. 1992. Root growth, nitrogen uptake, and tillering of wheat

induced by mixed-nitrogen source.

Crop Science 32: 997-1002.

Warwick, S.I., Beckie, H.J., Thomas A.G. & McDonald T. 2000. The biology of Canadian

weeds. 8.

Sinapis arvensis L. (updated). Canadian Journal of Plant Science 55: 171183.

Wicks G. A., Ramsel, R. E., Nordquist, P. T., Schmidt, J. W. & Challaiah, O. C. 1986.

Impact of wheat cultivars on establishment and suppression of summer annual weeds.

Agronomy Journal

78: 59-62.

Wilson, J. B. 1988. Shoot competition & root competition.

Journal of Applied Ecology 25:

279-296.

Wortmann, C.S. 1993. Contribution of bean morphological characteristics to weed

suppression.

Agronomy Journal 85: 840-843.

Zimdahl, R.L. 1980. Weed-crop competition: a review. International Plant Protection

Center. Oregon State University. USA. 195 p.