بررسی جوانه‌زنی و فنولوژی علف‌هرز سس (Cuscuta campestris) در مزارع چغندرقند (Beta vulgaris)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات ارومیه

2 دانشگاه ارومیه

3 موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپشکی

4 جهاد دانشگاهی ارومیه

چکیده

سس زراعی (Cuscuta campestris) به عنوان علف‌هرز انگل ساقه در سال‌های اخیر خسارت فراوانی به زراعت چغندرقند در استان آذربایجان غربی وارد کرده است. شاخص‌های جوانه‌زنی، اثرات انگل بر رشد و عملکرد چغندرقند و فنولوژی سس در شرایط آزمایشگاه، گلخانه‌ و مزرعه‌ در سال 1393 در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی ومنابع طبیعی آذربایجان غربی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. حداکثر جوانه‌زنی (73 تا 76 درصد) سس در دمای 25-30 درجه سانتی‌گراد رخ داد. با افزایش فاصله کشت بین میزبان و انگل از پنج به 15 سانتی‌متر، کاهش 63 درصدی وزن خشک سس و افزایش 4/31 درصدی وزن ریشه چغندرقند مشاهده شد. در فواصل پنج، 10 و 15 سانتی‌متری میزبان و سس، وزن خشک اندام‌های هوایی چغندرقند نسبت به شاهد بدون سس به ترتیب 38، 29 و 3/12 درصد کاهش یافت. پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که چرخه زندگی سس زراعی از کاشت بذر تا تولید بذر طی چهار مرحله رشدی، از مرحله سبز شدن شروع شده و با کسب 9/716 درجه – روز رشد به حیات خود ادامه داد. گل‌دهی طولانی‌ترین (473 درجه– روز رشد) و سبز شدن کوتاه‌ترین ( 95 درجه - روز رشد) مراحل رشدی سس زراعی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Survey of Germination and Phenology of Dodder (Cuscuta campestris) in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Fields

چکیده [English]

Field dodder (C. campestris), as an obligate stem parasite, damages sugar beet fields of west Azarbaijan province severely. In this research, we evaluated germination indices and parasitic effects of field dodder on sugar beet yield under laboratory, greenhouse and field conditions in West Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center during 2014. Results showed that maximum germination percent (73 to 76 %) occurred at 25-30 ºC. By increasing the planting distance from 5 to 15 cm between sugar beet and dodder plants, dry weight of dodder reduced by 63% and root weight of sugar beet increased by 31.4 %. The dry shoot weight of sugar beets that were surrounded with dodder whitin 5, 10, and 15 cm distance as compared to sugar beet that were surrounded with no dodder (control) reduced by 38, 29, and 12.3%, respectively. Results also showed that field dodder life cycle, from seed to seed needed 716.9 growth degree-days. Finally, the flowering (473growth degree-days) and germination (95growth degree-days) periods were identified as the longest and lowest growing stage respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Degree- day growth
  • Germination
  • host
  • parasite
  • seed production
 
 

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