مقایسه الگوهای مختلف کشت ذرت دانه‌ای بر کنترل علف‌های‌هرز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 موسسه تحقیقا گیاهپزشکی

2 موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر الگوهای مختلف کشت بر کنترل علف‌های‌هرز در ذرت دانه‌ای، آزمایشی در مشکین دشت کرج، در سال 1390 اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل کشت ذرت روی پشته + )سمپاشی نواری؛ یک بارکولتیواتور؛ دو بارکولتیواتور؛ وجین دستی؛ بدون وجین دستی) وکشت ذرت کف جوی + (سمپاشی سراسری؛ سمپاشی نواری؛ جابجایی جوی با پشته؛ وجین دستی؛ بدون وجین دستی) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که کارایی تیمارهای مکانیکی (دوبار کولتیواتور و جابجایی جوی و پشته) درکاهش تراکم سلمک و تاتوره و نیز وزن خشک سلمک بیش‌تر از تیمارهای سمپاشی نواری و سمپاشی سرتاسری بود. تیمار کشت ذرت روی پشته + دوبارکولتیواتور و تیمار کشت کف جوی + سمپاسی سراسری بهترین تیمار از نظر کنترل سوروف و قیاق بودند. تیمار کشت روی پشته + دو بار کولتیواتور از نظر کنترل علف‌های‌هرز باریک برگ و پهن برگ برترین تیمار بود. عملکرد دانه تیمار کشت کف جوی + جابجایی جوی و پشته با تیمارهای شیمیایی کشت کف جوی + سمپاشی سراسری و کشت روی پشته + سمپاشی نواری مشابه بود. از بین روش‌های کنترل غیر‌شیمیایی بترتیب، کشت کف جوی + جابجایی جوی با پشته و کشت روی پشته + دو بار کولتیواتور بیشترین عملکرد دانه را بخود اختصاص دادند. عملکرد بیولوژیکی ذرت در تیمارهای کشت کف جوی + جابجایی جوی و پشته با تیمارهای وجین دستی و نیز عملکرد بیولوژیکی تیمار کشت روی پشته + دو بار کولتیواتور مشابه تیمارهای علف‌کش بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Different Planting Patterns of Maize (Zea mays L.) on Weed Control

چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effect of different planting patterns on weed control in corn, an a RCBD experiment with 4 replications carried out at Karaj in RCBD with 4 replications in Karaj, Iran in 2011. Experimental treatments included: Ridge planting + (band spraying; once cultivator in 45 cm corn height; twice cultivators in 25 & 45 cm corn height; hand weeding; weedy check) and bed planting + (full spraying; band spraying; replacing ridge by furrow in 25 cm corn height stage; hand weeding; weedy check). The results showed that the efficiency of mechanical treatments (twice cultivators and replacing ridge by furrow) in reducing of to reduce the density of Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) and Lambsquaters (Chenopodium album) and dry weight of lambsquaters was more than of the band spraying and full spraying treatments. Among ridge planting treatments, ridge planting + twice cultivators and among bed planting treatments, bed planting + full spraying were the best treatments to control of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) and Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). In general, ridge planting + twice cultivators were the best treatment to control of the grass and broadleaf weeds. Grain yields obtained from bed planting + replacing ridge by furrow were the same with similar to bed planting + full spraying and ridge planting + band spraying treatments. Among the non-chemical control methods, bed planting + replacing ridge by furrow and ridge planting + twice cultivators had the highest yield respectively. Also, Besides maize biological yield was similar in bed planting + replacing ridge by furrow treatment with hand weeding, as well as and also biological yield of ridge planting + twice cultivators with were similar to chemical control treatments. Totally, it seems that by choosing the right approperate tools in mechanical control methods (like ridge planting and twice cultivators or bed planting and replacing ridge by furrow) while managing the weeds, weed management, can could be effective step towards in production healthy crops.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nicosulfuron
  • herbicide reduction
  • furrow bed planting
  • cultivation
 
 

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