تأثیر گیاهان پوششی و کنترل تلفیقی بر مدیریت علف‌های‌هرز و عملکرد غده سیب‌زمینی در سیستم‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح‌ نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا همدان

2 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا

چکیده

با توجه به اهمیت کاهش خاک‌ورزی و کاهش مصرف علف‌‌کش‌ها در مدیریت پایدار نظام‌های کشاورزی، استفاده از گیاهان پوششی را می‌توان به عنوان جایگزین یا مکملی برای کنترل علف‌های‌هرز در نظر گرفت. بدین منظور آزمایشی در سال زراعی 92-1391 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا به صورت کرت‌های دوبار خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار، اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل سیستم‌های خاک‌ورزی در سه سطح (خاک‌ورزی متداول، خاک‌ورزی حداقل و بدون خاک‌ورزی) در کرت‌های اصلی، کاربرد گیاهان پوششی در سه سطح (گیاه پوششی جو (Hordeum vulgare L.)، ماشک (vica villosa roth) و شاهد) در کرت‌های فرعی و کنترل تلفیقی علف‌های‌هرز در دو سطح (کنترل و عدم کنترل علف‌های‌هرز) در کرت‌های فرعی- فرعی قرار گرفتند. کاربرد گیاهان پوششی جو و ماشک توأم با کنترل تلفیقی علف‌های‌هرز در روش خاک‌ورزی متداول توانست به طور کامل علف‌های‌هرز را کنترل نمایند. کاربرد گیاهان پوششی در تیمار خاک‌ورزی متداول، خاک‌ورزی حداقل و بدون خاک‌ورزی، شاخص تنوع شانون- وینر علف‌های‌هرز را به ترتیب 24/54، 78/33 و 48/54 درصد کاهش داد. میزان کاهش شاخص تنوع شانون- وینر با کاربرد کنترل تلفیقی در روش‌های خاک‌ورزی متداول، خاک‌ورزی کاهش یافته و بدون خاک‌ورزی نسبت به تیمار شاهد به ترتیب 66/66، 74/61 و 56 درصد بود. بیشترین عملکرد غده (74/63 تن در هکتار) در روش خاک‌ورزی متداول با کاربرد گیاه پوششی ماشک توأم با کنترل تلفیقی علف‌های‌هرز بدست آمد که 81/55  درصد نسبت به شاهد بدون کنترل علف‌هرز و گیاه پوششی افزایش داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Cover Crops and Integrated Control on Weed Management and Tuber Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Different Tillage Systems

نویسندگان [English]

  • godarz Ahmadvand 1
  • somaye Hajinia 2
چکیده [English]

Considering the importance of conservation tillage and reduction of herbicide in the sustainable management of agricultural systems, use of cover crops can be considered as an alternative or supplement to control of weeds. A field experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Agricultural Faculty, of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2013. The experiment was carried out as a split- split plot based on a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The treatments included tillage systems at three levels (conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no-tillage) as main plots, three levels of cover crop (Vetch (vica villosa Roth), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and without cover crop) as subplot, and two levels of integrated control of weeds (weed control and weed free) as sub-sub plots. Barley and vetch cover crops combined with integrated weed control in conventional tillage system could completely control the weeds. Application of cover crops in the conventional tillage, reduced tillage and no tillage systems reduced Shannon-Wiener diversity index of weeds by 54.24, 33.78 and 54.84 percent, respectively. Reduction rate of diversity index using integrated control in the conventional tillage, reduced tillage and no-tillage systems compared to the control by 66.66, 61.74 and 56 percent, respectively. The highest tuber yield (63.74 Tons per hectare) was obtained in conventional tillage system application with vetch cover crop combined with integrated weed control that was about 55.81% more than that of no integrated weed control and no cover crops application, treatment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conservation tillage
  • diversity indices
  • Shannon-Wiener
  • weed

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