عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Knowledge about weed seedling emergence pattern provides helpful information to improve management decision making. Emergence pattern is genetically controlled and built up in association with environmental conditions. Six Hordeum spontaneum Koch populations that collected from different climates around Iran, were sown in field in a complete randomized block design with 4 replications. Seedlings were counted using the fixed quadrates at 3-day intervals until no emergence occurred in field. Cumulative emergence against thermal time (GDD) was described with sigmoid function for each population. Parameter estimates indicated appearance of populations in field with different patterns. Kermanshah population was the first seedlings emerged receiving 67 GDD followed by Khorasan Razavi populations which emerged 2-weeks later (76.6 GDD). Tehran and Ghazvin populations showing similar pattern appeared in field at GDD of 76.6. Fars and Khozestan were the last populations emerged in field with receiving 83 and 88 GDD, respectively. There are significant correlations between emergence patterns and climate conditions form which the populations were collected.
Baghestani, M. A., Zand, E., Mesgaran, M., Veyssi, M., Pourazar, R. and Mohammadipour, M. 2008. Control of weed barley species in winter wheat with sulfusulfuron at different rate and times of application. Weed Biol & .Manag. 8:181-191.
Beheshtian, M. M., Rahimian, M. H. and Alizade, H. 2011. Modeling seeding emergence patterns of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and canary grass (Phalaris minor) weeds. P.h.D. thesis. University of Tehran.
Benech-Arnold, R., Sanchez, R., Forcella, F., Kruk, B. and Ghersa, C. 2000. Environmental control of dormancy in weed seed banks in soil, Field Crops Res. 67: 105-122.
Benech-Arnold, R., Ghersa, C., Sancheez, R. and Insausti, P. 1990. Temperature effect of dormancy release and germination rate Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. seed: A quantitative analaysis. Weed Res. 30: 81-89.
Bilbro, J. D. and Wanjura, D. F. 1982. Soil crust and cotton emergence relationship. Transactions of the ASAE. 25: 1485-1488.
Boyd, N. and Van Acker, R. 2004. Seed and microsite limitations to emergence of four annual weed species. Weed Sci. 52: 571-577.
Buhler, D. D., Liebman, M. and Obrycki, J. J. 2000. Theoritical and practice challenges to an IPM approach to weed management. Weed Sci. 48: 274-280
Colbach N. D., Durr, JR-E., Chauvel, B., Caneill J. 2006. Modeling Black-grass
(Alopecurus myosuroide Huds.) germination and emergence, in interaction with seed characteristics, tillage and soil climate. I. Construction. Eur. J. Agron. 24: 95-112.
Dorado, J., Sousa, E., Calha, I. M., Gonzalez-Andujar, J. L. and Fernandez-Quintalilla, C. 2009. Predicting weed emergence in maize crops under two contrasting climatic condition. Weed Res. 49930; 251-260.
Finch-Savage, W., Phelps, K., Steckel, J., Whalley, W. and Rowse, H. 2001. Seed reserve dependent growth responses to temperature and water potential in carrot (Daucus carot L.). J. Exp. Bot. 52: 2187-2197.
Forcella, F. 1998. Real-time assessment of seed dormancy and seedling growth for weed management. Seed Sci. Res. 8: 201-209.
Forcella, F., Benech-Arnold, R., Sanchez, R. and Ghersa, C. 2000. Modeling seedling emergence. Field Crop Res. 67:123-139.
Gutterman, Y. and Nevo, E. 1994. Temperatures and ecological genetic differentiation effecting the germination of Hordeum spontanum caryopses harvested from three populations: The new desert and opposing slop of mediteraneum mount carmel. Isr. J. Plant Sci: 12: 38- 195
Haupt, R. L. and Haupt, S. E. 1998. Partical genetic algorithms. John Wiley & Sonse, New York, NY, USA. 253pp.
Mennan, H. and Ngouajio, M. 2006. Seasonal cycles in germination and seedling emergence of summer and winter populations of catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine) and wild mustard (Brassica kabr). Weeds Sci. 54: 114-120.
Norsworthy, J. K. and Oliiveira, M. J. 2007. A Model for predicting common cocklebur
(Xanthium strumarum) emergence in soybean. Weed Sci. 55: 341-345
Ward, J., Smith, S. and McClaran, M. 2006. Water requirements for emergence of buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare). Weed Sci. 54: 720-725.