ارزیابی برهمکنش علف کش و نیتروژن بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم در رقابت با علف هرز ارشته خطایی (Lepyrodiclis holosteoides Fenzl.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی برهمکنش علف‌کش و نیتروژن بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم در رقابت با علف هرز ارشته خطایی آزمایشی در دو منطقه شهریار و کرج به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتور اول زمان مصرف کود نیتروژن در دو سطح 10 روز قبل و 10 روز بعد از مصرف علف‌کش و فاکتور دوم مقدار نیتروژن در چهار سطح صفر، 30، 60 و 100 درصد مقدار توصیه شده (150 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن خالص از منبع کود اوره) و فاکتور سوم مقدار علف کش در چهار سطح صفر، 30، 60 و 100 درصد مقدار توصیه شده (40 گرم در هکتار علف‌کش سولفوسولفورون 75%+ متسولفورون متیل 5% از فرمولاسیون WG) بود. نتایج نشان داد در تیمار مصرف نیتروژن قبل از کاربرد علف‌کش، با افزایش مقدار مصرف نیتروژن تا 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار و دز علف کش کمتر از 10 گرم در هکتار، تعداد بذر ارشته خطایی در حدود 50 هزار عدد در واحد سطح بود که با افزایش دز علف کش به بیش از این مقدار، تعداد بذر ارشته خطایی کاهش یافت. در تیمار مصرف نیتروژن بعد از کاربرد علف‌کش تعداد بذر ارشته خطایی در مقادیر کمتر از 10 گرم در هکتار در هر دو منطقه کاهش یافت. افزایش دز علف‌کش به بیش از 15 گرم بر هکتار همراه با افزایش مقدار مصرف نیتروژن قبل از کاربرد علف‌کش، باعث کاهش ماده خشک ارشته خطایی از 1200 به کمتر از 300 گرم در متر مربع گردید. افزایش دز علف‌کش و مقدار مصرف نیتروژن قبل و بعد از کاربرد علف‌کش باعث افزایش وزن هزار دانه، تعداد دانه در سنبله و تعداد پنجه گندم در واحد سطح گردید که در نهایت باعث افزایش عملکرد دانه شد. افزایش نیتروژن بویژه هنگامی که بعد از کاربرد علف‌کش استفاده گردد باعث تشدید اثر علف‌کش در کنترل ارشته خطایی شد که دلیل آن را می توان به افزایش کارایی علف کش به واسطه برهمکنش نیتروژن و علف کش دانست. در چنین شرایطی گندم نیز به واسطه بهره‌گیری از نیتروژن و نور کافی عملکرد دانه بیشتری (6700 کیلوگرم در هکتار) نسبت به شرایط بدون نیتروژن و بدون علف‌کش (500 کیلوگرم در هکتار) تولید نمود. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق می توان دریافت افزایش مقدار مصرف نیتروژن باعث افزایش کارایی علف‌کش توتال در کنترل علف هرز ارشته خطایی گردید به طوری که با افزایش مصرف نیتروژن به ویژه بعد از کاربرد علف‌کش، کنترل ارشته خطایی در دز کمتری از علف‌کش محقق شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Herbicide-Nitrogen Interaction on Wheat Yield and Yield Components in Competition with Lepyrodiclis holosteoides Fenzl.

نویسندگان [English]

  • saeed yaghoubi 1
  • majed Aghaalikhani 1
  • amir ghelavand 1
  • eskandar zand 2
چکیده [English]

To investigate interaction of herbicide and nitrogen on wheat and Lepyrodiclis (Lepyrodiclis holosteoides Fenzl.), a research was conducted at two different locations (Shahriyar and Karaj Regions) in RCBD with factorial arrangement and three replications. Research factors consisted of (i) Nitrogen application time (10 days before and 10 days after herbicide application), (ii) nitrogen rates (0, 30, 60 and 100% of the recommended dose, 150 kg ha-1 as urea source), and (iii) herbicide Sulfosulfuron 75% + Metsulfuron-methy 5% (Total®, UPL, India) rates (0, 30, 60 and 100% of the recommended dose, 40 g ha-1). Results obtained from the nitrogen-before-herbicide treatment indicated that when 150 kg ha-1 nitrogen was utilized before application of herbicide (less than 10 g ha-1), Lepyrodiclis seed No. increased up to 50000 m-2; however, an increase in the above herbicide dose (i.e. more than 10 g ha-1) had an adverse impact, that is to say, Lepyrodiclis seed No. drastically reduced. With application of nitrogen after herbicide utizilation (less than 10 g ha-1), it was found that Lepyrodiclis seed No. of both under study regions reduced. An increase in herbicide dose to more than 15 g ha-1 together with the increase of before-herbicide nitrogen application led to the reduction of Lepyrodiclis’ dry matter from 1200 to 300 g m-2. Increase of herbicide dose and also that of nitrogen applied before and after herbicide produced more wheat yield and yield components. An increase in nitrogen dose, particularly when it was applied after herbicide, aggravated herbicide efficacy in Lepyrodiclis control; the reason could be attributed to the nitrogen_herbicide interaction. Therefore, it could be concluded that benefiting from sufficient nitrogen and light, wheat produced more seed yield (6700 kg ha-1), compared to no-nitrogen/herbicide conditions (500 kg ha-1). Further, results revealed that an increase in nitrogen rate, particularly in that of after-herbicide application, left positive effect on herbicide efficacy in Lepyrodiclis control in a way that we achieved the goal (Lepyrodiclis control) with reduced herbicide dose.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • herbicide dose
  • Nitrogen
  • Competition
  • Seed yield
  • weeds biomass
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