اثر مقادیر و زمان مصرف انواع کمپوست¬های آلی بر تراکم و زیست توده علف¬های هرز زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد

2 استاد دانشگاه

3 محقق

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی اثر مقادیر و زمان مصرف انواع کمپوست‌های آلی بر جمعیت علف‌های هرز و عملکرد زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum L.) آزمایشی در سال زراعی 88-1387 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. سه نوع کمپوست آلی (مرغی، گاوی و بقایای بستر قارچ) در سه مقدار (صفر، 20 و 40 تن در هکتار) و سه زمان مصرف (همزمان با کاشت، یک ماه بعد و نیمه اسفند ماه) بصورت کرت‌های دوبار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با اختصاص نوع کمپوست، مقدار و زمان مصرف به ترتیب به کرت‌های اصلی، فرعی و فرعی در چهار تکرار مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش بیشترین تعداد گونه علف‌های هرز موجود در زیره سبز، گونه‌های پهن برگ بوداند. علف‌های هرز پاییزه شامل خاکشیر ایرانی و تلخ، گندمک، یولاف وحشی، شاهتره و درشتوک و علف‌های هرز بهاره آن شامل سلمه، هفت بند، سیزاب و تاجریزی بودند. تراکم تمام گونه‌های علف‌های هرز بجز گندمک و خاکشیر تلخ و نیز تراکم کل علف‌های هرز بطور معنی‌دار تحت تأثیر مقدار مصرف کمپوست قرار گرفت. بیشترین تراکم کل علف‌های هرز در تیمار مصرف کمپوست بستر قارچ و نیز مصرف در یک ماه بعد از کاشت مشاهده شد. اثر مقدار و زمان مصرف کمپوست بر زیست توده خشک علف‌های هرز معنی‌دار بود، بطوریکه کمترین زیست توده علف‌های هرز در شرایط مصرف کمپوست گاوی در نیمه اسفند ماه حاصل شد. با افزایش میزان مصرف کمپوست، زیست توده علف‌های هرز افزایش یافت. بدین ترتیب، چنین به نظر می‌رسد که باتوجه به دسترسی آسان و مقرون به صرفه بودن کمپوست گاوی، مصرف این نوع کمپوست می‌تواند به کاهش تراکم علف‌های هرز در مزرعه زیره سبز کمک نماید. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Various Compost Types, Rates and Application Time on Weed Density and Biomass in Cumin Fields

نویسندگان [English]

  • toktam kaboodi 1
  • reza ghorbani 2
  • mehdi nassiri mahallati 3
  • ali asghar 3
  • soror khorramdel 3
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effects of types, rates and application times of various organic composts on weed population and biomass in cumin, a field experiment was conducted as split-split plot based on randomized complete block with four replications at Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2008-2009 growing season. Three compost types (poultry, cow and mushroom bed residue), compost rates (0, 20 and 40 t.ha-1) and compost application time (at planting date, 30 days after planting and 105 days after planting) were allocated to main plot, sub-plot and sub-sub plot, respectively. The most important weed species were broadleaf species. Winter weeds were mainly Descurinia sophia, Sisymberium irio, Stellaria media, Avena fatua, Malcolmia africana, Fumaria parviflora، and spring weeds were Chenopodium album, Polygonum aviculare, Veronica sp. and Solanum nigrum. Expect Stellaria media and Sisymberium irio, weed density in other species and also total weed density were significantly affected by compost types and rates and its application date. The highest total weed density observed with using mushroom-bed compost, applied one month after planting. Results showed that organic compost type, rate and time of application had significant effects on fresh and weed dry biomass. The lowest weed biomass was observed in cow compost plots. Compost application in 105 days after planting had lowest weed biomass. With increasing compost rates weed biomass was also increased. In conclusion, based on the results of the present study and considering the easy availability and low cost of cow manure, application of cow manure compost could help in reduction in weed density and biomass in cumin fields.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • animal manure
  • Cuminum cyminum
  • mushroom compost
 

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