بررسی اکولوژی جوانه‌زنی بذر و ظهور گیاهچۀ ساق‌ترشک (Rumex crispus L.) و کوزه قلیانی (Silene conoidea L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد

2 استاد دانشگاه

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اکولوژی جوانه‌زنی بذر و ظهور گیاهچۀ ساق‌ترشک و کوزه قلیانی، آزمایش‌هایی در آزمایشگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند در پاییز و زمستان 1388 در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا گردید.  تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل نور (نور/تاریکی و تاریکی مداوم)، دماهای متناوب شب/روز (5/10، 10/20، 15/25، 20/30 و 25/35 درجه سانتی‌گراد(، تنش شوری (صفر (شاهد)، 10، 20، 40، 80، 160، 320 و 640 میلی‌مولار)، تنش خشکی (صفر (شاهد)، 1/0-، 2/0-، 4/0-، 6/0-، 8/0- و 1- مگاپاسکال)، pH (چهار تا ده) و عمق کشت (صفر تا چهار سانتی‌متر) بودند.  نتایج نشان داد که جوانه‌زنی بذور ساق‌ترشک، تحت تاثیر شرایط نور/تاریکی و تاریکی مداوم قرار نگرفت. بذور ساق‌ترشک در دامنه وسیعی از دماهای متناوب تست شده در دو رژیم نور/تاریکی و تاریکی مداوم بیش از 85 درصد جوانه زدند و جوانه‌زنی آن در دمای 5/10 درجه سانتیگراد متوقف شد. بذور علف‌هرز کوزه قلیانی در دامنه دماهای متناوب 15/25 درجه سانتی‌گراد و پایین‌تر در دو رژیم نور/تاریکی و تاریکی مداوم بیش از 70 درصد جوانه‌زنی داشتند، اما در دماهای بالاتر از 15/25 درجه سانتی‌گراد جوانه‌زنی به خصوص در شرایط نور/تاریکی کاهش محسوسی داشت.  بذور ساق‌ترشک و کوزه قلیانی تا شوری 160 میلی‌مولار بیش از 85 درصد جوانه‌زنی داشته و جوانه‌زنی آنها در پتانسیل اسمزی 8/0- مگاپاسکال به ترتیب 60 و 90 درصد بود.  بذور ساق‌ترشک و کوزه قلیانی در دامنۀ pH چهار تا ده حدود 90 درصد جوانه زدند.  عمق دفن بذر، سبز شدن گیاهچه‌های ساق‌ترشک و کوزه قلیانی را بطور معنی‌داری کاهش داد، به طوری‌که از عمق بیشتر از سه سانتی‌متر گیاهچه‌ای سبز نشد و حداکثر سبز شدن (به ترتیب 98 و 7/74 درصد) مربوط به بذوری بود که در سطح خاک در زیر سه لایه کاغذ صافی کشت شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying the Ecology of Seed Germination and Seedling Emergence of Curly dock (Rumex crispus L.) and Cone Catchfly (Silene conoidea L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • esmail ebrahimi 1
  • seyed vahid eslami 2
  • ebadollah shahraki 1
چکیده [English]

  (Rumex crispus) and cone catchfly (Silene conoidea), experiments were conducted based on RCBD with 3 replications at Research Laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture, Birjand University during autumn 2009 and winter 2010. Experimental treatments were light (Light/Dark and continuous dark), alternating day/night temperatures (10/5, 20/10, 25/15, 30/20 and 35/25 C), salinity stress (0 (Control), 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320 and 640 mM), drought stress (0 (Control), -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8 and -1 MPa), pH (4 to 10) and sowing depth (0 to 4 cm). Results showed that seed germination of Curly dock was unaffected by either light/dark or continuous darkness conditions. Greater than 85% of curly duck seeds germinated over a broad range of alternating day/night tested temperatures under light/dark and continuous dark regimes and its germination completely ceased at 10/5 C. Cone catchfly seeds germinated greater than 70% at alternating temperature regimes equal to or lower than 25/15 C under light/dark and continuous dark regimes, but its germinability was remarkably reduced at temperature regimes warmer than 25/15 C, especially under light/dark conditions. Curly dock and Cone catchfly seeds germinated greater than 85% until the salinity level of 160 mM (NaCl), while their germination percentage at osmotic potential of -0.8 MPa were 60 and 90%, respectively. The average germinability of curly dock and cone catchfly seeds over a pH range of 4 to 10 was 90%. Seed burial significantly reduced curly dock and cone catchfly seedling emergence, so that no seedling emerged from a soil depth deeper than 3 cm and the greatest seedling emergence of curly dock and cone catchfly (98 and 74.7%, respectively) was occurred for seeds placed on the soil surface under 3 layers of filter paper.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Emergence
  • Salinity
  • Drought
  • acidity
  • Sowing depth
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