اثر کم آبیاری و طول دوره تداخل تاج خروس ریشه قرمز در مراحل مختلف رشد بر عملکرد دانه و درصد روغن آفتابگردان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر تنش کم آبی و طول دوره تداخل تداخل تاج خروس ریشه قرمز (Amaranthus retroflexus) بر رشد و عملکرد آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus)، آزمایشی مزرعه‌ای در دو سال زراعی 89-1388 و 90-1389 در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل کم آبیاری در سه سطح (آبیاری نرمال، آبیاری در 75 و 50 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه) و طول دوره تداخل علف‌هرز تاج خروس در دو گروه به ترتیب: رقابت علف‌هرز تا مرحله‌ی 8 برگی، 12برگی، ظهور طبق، گلدهی و رسیدگی (تداخل تمام فصل) آفتابگردان و گروه دوم، کنترل تاج خروس تا مراحل فوق به عنوان عامل فرعی انتخاب شدند. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش شدت کم آبیاری از 100 به 75 و به 50 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه،درصد روغن، عملکرد دانه و اجزاء عملکرد دانه آفتابگردان (تعداد دانه در طبق و وزن هزار دانه) در هر دو سال کاهش یافت. با افزایش طول دوره تداخل تاج خروس، به دلیل افزایش رقابت با گیاه زراعی عملکرد دانه، اجزای عملکرد، درصد روغن دانه و ارتفاع بوته آفتابگردان کاهش یافت و این کاهش از مرحله 12 برگی به مرحله ظهور طبق معنی‏دار بود. اثر تنش آبی بر کاهش وزن خشک علف‌هرز در مقایسه با گیاه زراعی بیشتر بود. تنش آبی تاثیر تداخل تاج خروس را افزایش داد به عبارت دیگر تاثیر علف‌هرز بر رشد و عملکرد آفتابگردان با اعمال تنش آبی بیشتر شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Water Deficit and Redroot Pigweed Interference Period at Different Growth Stages on Sunflower Yield and Oil Percentage

نویسندگان [English]

  • zahra kyamarsii
  • seyed Abdolreza kazemaini
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of water deficit and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) interference period on sunflower yield, two field experiments were carried out during 2009-10 and 2010-11 growing seasons at the Agricultural College of Shiraz University. The experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots included water deficit at three levels (100%, 75% and 50% field capacity) and main plots consisted of two groups 1)Interference period of redroot pigweed up to 8-leaf, 12-leaf stages, head emergence, flowering and maturity(whole season interference) of sunflower and 2)Control of pigweed up to stages mentioned above. Results indicated that with increasing water deficit levels from 100% to 75% and 50% field capacity, seed oil percentage, seed yield and its components decreased. With increasing pigweed interference, sunflower yield, and yield components, seed oil percentage and plant height were decreased and these reductions were significant from 12-leaf stage until head emergence. Water stress decreased pigweed dry weight more than crop. Water stress increased pigweed interference, in other words impact of weeds on sunflower growth and yield, increased with water stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • weed
  • water deficit
  • interference
  • Field capacity
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