ارزیابی توانایی تحمل رقابت ارقام بومی و اصلاح شده برنج (Oryza sativa L.) در برابر علف‌هرز اویارسلام زرد (Cyperus esculentus L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشگاه ساری

چکیده

این پژوهش به منظور ارزیابی اثر تراکم علف‌هرز اویارسلام زرد (Cyperus esculentus) بر برخی از صفات فیزیولوژیک، مورفولوژیک و عملکرد ارقام برنج (Oryza sativa) در سال زراعی 91-1390 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار به اجرا در آمد. در این آزمایش دو فاکتور تراکم علف‌هرز اویارسلام زرد در چهار سطح (شامل شاهد، 60، 120 و 180 بوته در متر مربع) و رقم برنج در سه سطح (شامل طارم به عنوان رقم محلی، شیرودی و قائم به عنوان ارقام اصلاح ‌شده) بودند. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس بیانگر اختلاف کاملاً معنی‌دار تعداد علف‌هرز، رقم و برهمکنش آنها از نظر صفات طول ساقه، سطح برگ پرچم، تعداد برگ، وزن‌تر و خشک برگ، میزان کلروفیل، محتوای کلروفیل (SPAD)، شاخص برداشت و عملکرد شلتوک بود. بررسی مقایسه میانگین صفات در تمامی ارقام نشان از کاهش میزان آنها تحت شرایط رقابت با این علف‌هرز بود، به طوری که کمترین میزان این صفات در تراکم 180 بوته از این علف‌هرز در متر مربع بدست آمد. همچنین شیب معادلات در تجزیه رگرسیونی بین ارقام برنج نشان داد که واکنش ارقام برنج نسبت به افزایش تراکم این علف‌هرز یکسان نبوده است، به طوری که رقم طارم با کمترین میزان شیب خط در صفات سطح برگ پرچم (y= 33.22 - 0.04x)، طول ساقه (y= 105.33 - 0.20x)، تعداد پنجه بارور (y= 22.5 - 0.03x)، شاخص برداشت (y= 24.98 - 0.3x) و عملکرد شلتوک (y= 366.6 - 0.57x) به عنوان یک رقابت‌کننده قوی (01/0P≤) و ارقام شیرودی و قائم به ترتیب در رده‌های بعدی به عنوان رقابت‌کننده‌های ضعیف‌تر در برابر این علف‌هرز قرار گرفتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Competition Potential in Rice Varieties (Oryza sativa L.) against Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahmood mohammadi 1
  • hematollah pirdashti 2
  • ghasem Aghajani 2
  • seyed yousef Mousavi Toghani 2
چکیده [English]

An experiment was conducted to evaluate yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) density effects on some rice physiological, morphological characteristics and its paddy yield at Sari Agricultual Sciences and Natural Resources University. This experiment was performed as factorial based randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Weed density in four levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 plants m-2) and rice varieties in three levels (Tarom as traditional cultivar, Shirodi and Ghaem as improved cultivars) were the treatments. Results of ANOVA revealed significant difference of weed numbers, rice cultivars and their interactions on shoot length, flag leaf area, leaf number, leaf wet and dry weight, chlorophyll content, SPAD value, harvest index and paddy yield. Mean comparisons showed that the highest levels of all characteristics were recorded in the control plots, while their lowest levels were observed in weed density of 180 plant m-2.The response of different rice varieties to nutsedge densities varied. Among rice cultivars, Tarom had the lowest slope in flag leaf area equation (y= 33.22 - 0.04x), stem length (y= 105.33 - 0.20x), fertile tiller number (y= 22.5 - 0.03x), harvest index (y= 24.98 - 0.3x) and paddy yield (y= 366.6 - 0.57x). Therefore, this traditional cultivar is recommended as the strongest competitor compared to Shirodi and Ghaem improved cultivars which were shown to be as weak competitors to yellow nutsedge weed.

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