بررسی تاثیر گیاه پوششی و زمان کاشت آن بر جمعیت علف‌های‌هرز و عملکرد ذرت در دو نظام کم خاک‌ورزی و مرسوم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 گروه علفهای هرز دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

3 موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر گیاه پوششی و زمان کاشت آن بر جمعیت علف‌های‌هرز و عملکرد ذرت در دو نظام کم خاک­ورزی و مرسوم، آزمایشی با کشت ماشک گل خوشه­ای، شبدر ایرانی، چاودار و شاهد (بدون گیاه پوششی، بدون وجین علف‌هرز) در سه تاریخ کاشت (1 مهر، 15 مهر و 30 مهر) با کشت ذرت رقم زودرس (108) در شرایط کم خاک­ورزی (در سال1393-1392) و کشت ذرت رقم دیررس (704) در شرایط خاک­ورزی مرسوم (در سال 1394-1393) در موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر کرج انجام گرفت. نتایج نشان داد در هر دو سال در اولین تاریخ کاشت، گیاهان پوششی با تولید زیست توده بیشتر، جذب نیتروژن، تولید بقایا و در نتیجه تولید مواد آلی بیشتر و افزایش حاصلخیزی خاک پس از انجام خاکورزی، موجب بهبود شرایط در جهت رشد گیاه ذرت و علف‌های‌هرز شده ولی در تاریخ کاشت­های دوم و سوم احتمالا محدودیت میزان نیتروژن خاک موجب کاهش عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت و رشد علف‌های‌هرز گردید. در شرایط کم خاک­ورزی چاودار (34 درصد) و در خاکورزی مرسوم، هر سه گیاه پوششی (به طور میانگین 53 درصد) موجب کاهش زیست توده علف‌های‌هرز گردیدند. بطور کلی بین دو سیستم خاکورزی، درصد کربن آلی در کم خاک­ورزی بیشتر از خاک­ورزی مرسوم بود. از نظر نیتروژن جذب شده در هر دو نوع خاکورزی انجام شده بیشترین میزان مربوط به تیمار چاودار بود. عملکرد دانه ذرت رقم زودرس ذرت در تیمار مربوط به چاودار (304/5 تن بر هکتار) در کم خاک­ورزی و عملکرد دانه رقم دیررس ذرت در تیمار شبدر ایرانی (298/9 تن بر هکتار) در خاک­ورزی مرسوم بیشتر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Cover Crops and Time of Sowing on Weed Population and Corn Yield in Two Minimum and Conventional Tillage Systems

نویسندگان [English]

  • rasoul fakhari 1
  • Ahmad Toube 1
  • Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim 2
  • mohammad Ali Baghestani 3
  • eskanar zand 3
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of cover crops and sowing time on weed population and corn yield in minimum an conventional tillage systems, an experiment was conducted in the Seed and Plant Improvement Research Institute, Karaj, using Vicia villosa (V), Trifolium resupinatum (T) and Secale cereale (S) as cover crops, plus control (no cover crops, allowing weeds to grow). The cover crops were planted at three different dates of September 23rd, October 7th and October 27thin a corn field. In the first year (2013-2014) early ripening corn (Var. 108) was planted under minimum tillage. In the second year (2014-2015) late ripening corn (Var. 704) was planted under conventional tillage. Results indicated that the first cover plant sowing time was favorable in both years. This was mostly due to nitrogen availability of the soil which resulted in higher grain yield and better weed growth. Under minimum tillage, S reduced weed biomass by 34%. Under conventional tillage system, all the cover crops reduced weed biomass by 53%. Generally, percentage of organic carbon was higher in minimum tillage than in conventional system. S showed highest nitrogen uptake among the three cover crops in both tillage systems. In minimum tillage, the highest corn yield was under S cover crop with 5.304 t/ha. In conventional tillage, the highest corn yield was under T cover crop with 9.298 t/ha.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Minimum Tillage
  • Organic materials
  • Rye
  • Soil nitrogen
 
 

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