برهمکنش تراکم گیاهی وکود نیتروژن در رقابت گندم با علف‌هرز جودره (Hordeum spontaneum) تحت تاثیر غلظت‌های علف‌کش سولفوسولفورون + مت-سولفورون در دو منطقه کرج و قم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

2 پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

3 هیئت علمی گروه زراعت دانشگاه تهران

4 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی تاثیر تیمارهای مختلف کود نیتروژن، تراکم گندم و مقدار علف‌کش سولفوسولفورون + مت‌سولفورون (توتال) بر پارامترهای رشدی علف‌هرز جودره و عملکرد گندم، آزمایشی در سال 1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، واقع در محمدشهر کرج و مزرعه تحقیقاتی جهاد کشاورزی استان قم به‌صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل: سه سطح تراکم گندم (300، 400 و 500 بوته در مترمربع) دو سطوح نیتروژن (240، 300 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و پنج سطح غلظت علف‌کش توتال (0، 20، 33، 45، 54 گرم ماده موثره در هکتار) بود. نتایج نشان داد برهمکنش تیمارهای مورد بررسی در دو منطقه معنی‌دار بود. تاثیر کاهشیِ افزایش تراکم گندم بر زیست‌توده علف-هرز جودره در غلظت‌های مختلف علف‌کش توتال، متفاوت بود. به‌نحوی‌که در غلظت‌های پایین علف‌کش، افزایش تراکم گندم منجر به کاهش علف‌هرز جودره شد. درحالی‌که با افزایش غلظت علف‌کش توتال، اثر کاهشی تراکم گندم بر روی زیست‌توده جودره حذف گردید. با توجه به بالا بودن کارایی مصرف کود نیتروژن در گندم، کاربرد سطح پایین کود نیتروژن منجر به بهره‌مندی بیشتر گندم و کاهش توان رقابتی جودره در آزمایش کرج گردید. در آزمایش قم اگرچه این روند بطورکلی مشاهده شد، ولی تغییرات از لحاظ آماری معنی‌دار شناخته نشد. به طورکلی می‌توان گفت که تلفیق کاربرد مصرف 240 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژن به همراه تراکم 400 بوته در متر مربع گندم و اعمال 45 گرم در هکتار از علف‌کش توتال در منطقه کرج بهترین تیمار شناخته شد. درحالی‌‌که در منطقه قم تلفیق کاربرد مصرف 300 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژن + تراکم 500 بوته در متر مربع گندم و اعمال 45 گرم در هکتار از علف‌کش توتال منجر به حداکثر عملکرد گندم گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Interaction of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Wheat Density in Competition with Wild Barley under Metsulfuron methyl + Sulfosulfuron Doses in Karaj and Qom

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Farhangfar 1
  • Mostafa Oveisi 2
  • Hamid Rahimian 3
  • Hassan Alizadeh 4
1 University of Tehran
3 University of Tehran
4 University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of nitrogen, wheat density and herbicide doses on wheat-wild barley competition in Karaj and Qom. Experiment was a split-factorial with three replications. Experimental factors were wheat densities of 300, 400 and 500 plants m-2, nitrogen levels of 240 and 300 kg ha-1 and five doses of metsulfuron-methyl plus sulfosulfuron at 0, 20, 33, 45 and 54 g ha-1. Results from both locations indicated significant interactions between treatments. Depending on herbicide dose applied wheat density effect on wild-barley biomass was different. Decrease in wild-barley biomass obtained from increasing wheat density was significantly higher with low doses of herbicide. Regarding higher nitrogen efficiency in Karaj wheat, lower nitrogen level caused more competition ability of wheat and lower wild-barley biomass. In Qom experiment, the general trend was similar, differences were not significant at p-value

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • wild barley biomass
  • nitrogen use efficiency
  • herbicide dose and wheat yield
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