ارزیابی برخی جنبه‌های اکوفیزیولوژیک گوشاب (.Potamogeton nodosus Poir) در واکنش به سطوح مختلف کود، رقم برنج و غرقاب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور

2 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، رشت، ایران

4 هیئت علمی گروه زراعت دانشگاه تهران

5 کروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه گیلان

6 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه تهران، گروه زراعت

چکیده

تحمل گوشاب به غرقاب و بیشتر علف‌کش‌ها و نیز رشد دوباره پس از وجین دستی سبب شده است تا این علف‌هرز به‌عنوان یک گونه مهاجم در شالیزار مورد توجه قرار گیرد. به‌منظور ارائه راهکاری جهت مدیریت گوشاب، سه آزمایش اجرا گردید. در آزمایش اول، رقابت ارقام برنج هاشمی و گوهر با گوشاب در سطوح صفر، 50، 100 و 150 درصد از مقدار توصیه‌شده کود‌های NPK مطالعه شد. در آزمایش دوم، روند تکثیر و کلونی‌زایی گوشاب در سطوح کودی فوق و در آزمایش سوم، اثر عمق آب بر رشد علف‌هرز گوشاب بررسی شد. نتایج آزمایش اول نشان داد که گوشاب فاقد تأثیر معنی‌دار بر عملکرد رقم گوهر بود؛ امّا موجب کاهش 25-13 درصدی عملکرد رقم هاشمی گردید. کاهش عناصر غذایی به 50 و صفر درصد مقدار توصیه شده، منجر به کاهش شدید عملکرد هر دو رقم برنج در رقابت با گوشاب شد. مطابق نتایج آزمایش دوم، میزان گسترش کلونی گوشاب در تیمار کودی 50 درصد، دو برابر تیمار کودی 100 درصد بود. نتایج آزمایش سوم نشان داد که افزایش عمق غرقاب به هفت و 14 سانتی‌متر، سبب افزایش 359 و 342 درصدی اندام‌های هوایی درمقایسه با تیمار اشباع شد. به‌طور‌کلی مطابق نتایج این تحقیق، دلیل طغیان و خسارت گوشاب را می‌توان به ضعف تغذیه‌ای و غرقاب عمیق و طولانی‌مدت شالیزارها نسبت داد و در صورت مصرف بهینه‌ی کودها، زه‌کشی و نیز استفاده از ارقام مناسب، نیازی به صرف هزینه‌های زیاد جهت وجین دستی مکرّر گوشاب نیست و حضور علف‌هرز، موجب خسارت اقتصادی معنی‌دار به برنج نخواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Some Ecophisiological Aspects of Pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir.) in Response to Fertilizers Levels, Rice Variety and Flooding

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bijan Yaghoubi 1
  • Mohammad Mahdi Fanooschi 2
  • Farzin Pouramir 3
  • Hamid Rahimian 4
  • Elmira Mohammadvand 5
  • Mostafa Oveisi 6
2 Former M.Sc student of Tehran University
3 Assistant professor, Rice Research Institute of Iran, Rasht, Iran
4 University of Tehran
5 Department of agronomy and plant breeding, University of Guilan
6 Department of Agronomy and Plant breeding- Tehran University, Karaj Iran
چکیده [English]

Pondweed tolerance to flooding and most herbicides, as well as regrowth after hand weeding, has led the weed to be considered as an invasive species in paddy rice. Three experiments were carried out to provide a strategy for management of pondweed. In the first experiment, the interference of pondweed with Hashemi and Gohar rice cultivars at 0, 50, 100 and 150% of recommended NPK fertilizer were studied. In the second experiment, pondweed proliferation and colonization at the above fertilizer levels; and in the third experiment, the effect of water depth on the growth of this weed were investigated. The result of the first experiment showed that pondweed does not have significant effect on the yield of Gohar cultivar, but decreased the yield of Hashemi by 13-25%. Decreasing the fertilizer level to 50 and zero percent of recommended doses led to sharp decline in the performance of both rice cultivars in competition with pondweed. According to the results of the second experiment, the pondweed colony expansion in the 50% recommended dose of fertilizer treatment was twice that of 100% fertilizer treatment. The result of third experiment showed that, increasing the water depth to 7 and 14 cm led to 359 and 342 percent increase in pondweed shoot biomass in comparison to saturated treatment. In general, according to the results of this research, the reason for the outbreak and damage of pondweed can be attributed to the nutritional weakness and the deep and long flooding of the paddy fields. In case of efficient use of fertilizers, drainage and the use of appropriate cultivars, it is not necessary to spend a lot on frequent hand weeding and the presence of weed will not cause significant economic losses of rice.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nutrition
  • colonization
  • weed
  • regrowth
  • flood tolerant
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