عنوان مقاله [English]
Pondweed tolerance to flooding and most herbicides, as well as regrowth after hand weeding, has led the weed to be considered as an invasive species in paddy rice. Three experiments were carried out to provide a strategy for management of pondweed. In the first experiment, the interference of pondweed with Hashemi and Gohar rice cultivars at 0, 50, 100 and 150% of recommended NPK fertilizer were studied. In the second experiment, pondweed proliferation and colonization at the above fertilizer levels; and in the third experiment, the effect of water depth on the growth of this weed were investigated. The result of the first experiment showed that pondweed does not have significant effect on the yield of Gohar cultivar, but decreased the yield of Hashemi by 13-25%. Decreasing the fertilizer level to 50 and zero percent of recommended doses led to sharp decline in the performance of both rice cultivars in competition with pondweed. According to the results of the second experiment, the pondweed colony expansion in the 50% recommended dose of fertilizer treatment was twice that of 100% fertilizer treatment. The result of third experiment showed that, increasing the water depth to 7 and 14 cm led to 359 and 342 percent increase in pondweed shoot biomass in comparison to saturated treatment. In general, according to the results of this research, the reason for the outbreak and damage of pondweed can be attributed to the nutritional weakness and the deep and long flooding of the paddy fields. In case of efficient use of fertilizers, drainage and the use of appropriate cultivars, it is not necessary to spend a lot on frequent hand weeding and the presence of weed will not cause significant economic losses of rice.
Abu-Irmaileh, B.E. 1981. Response of hemp broomrape (Orobanche ramosa) infestation to some nitrogen compounds. Weed Sci. 29: 8–10.
Aldrich, R.J. and Kremer, R.J. 1997. Principles in weed management. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
Aminpanah, H. 2011. Response of more and less competitive rice cultivars to different densities of barnyardgrass. J. Crop Produc. 4: 67-84. (In Persian with English summary).
Ampong-Nyarko, K. and De Datta, S.K. 1993. Effects of nitrogen application on growth, nitrogen use efficiency and rice–weed interaction. Weed Res. 33: 269–276.
Babaei, S., Alizadeh, H., Jahan souz, M., Rahimian Mashahadi, H. and Minbashi Moeini, M. 2008. Managing Egyptian Broomrape (Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel) Using Nitrogen Fertilizer in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Iranian J. Weed Sci. 4: 79-89. (In Persian with English summary).
Barrett, S. and Seaman, D. 1980. The weed flora of California rice fields. Aquat Bot 9: 351-376.
Blackshaw, R.E., Brandt, R. N. Janzen, H. H., Entz, T., Grant, C.A. and Derksen, D.A. 2003. Differential response of weed species to added nitrogen. Weed Sci. 51: 532–539.
Caton, B.P., Mortimer, A.M., Foin, T.C., Hill, J.E., Gibson, K.D. and Fischer, A.J. 2001. Weed shoot morphology effects on competitiveness for light in direct-seeded rice. Weed Res. 41: 155–163.
Caton, B.P., Foin, T.C. and Hill, J.E. 1997. Mechanisms of competition for light between rice (Oryza sativa) and redstem (Ammannia spp.). Weed Sci. 45: 269–275.
Dakheel, A.J., Radosevich, S.R. and Barbour, M.G. 1993. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and interference between Bromus tectorum and Taeniatherum asperum. Weed Res. 33: 415–422.
Dickerman, J.A. and Wetzel, R.G. 1985. Clonal growth in Typha latifolia: Population dynamics and demography of the ramets. J Ecol. 73: 535–552
DiTomaso, J.M. 1995. Approaches for improving crop competitiveness through the manipulation of fertilization strategies. Weed Sci. 43: 491–497.
Ganiea, A.H., Reshia, Z.A., Wafaia, B.A. and Puijalon, S. 2014. Phenotypic plasticity: Cause of the successful spread of the genus Potamogeton in the Kashmir Himalaya. Aqua. Bota. 120: 283–289.
Ghahraman, A. 1986. Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands Press. 8: 412-556. (In Persian with English summary).
Gibson, K.D., Foin, T.C.,and Hill J.E. 1999. The relative importance of root and shoot competition between water-seeded rice and Echinochloa phyllopogon. Weed Res. 39:181–190.
Johnson, D.E., Dingkuhn M., Jones, M.P. and Mahamane, M.C. 1998. The influence of rice plant type on the effect of weed competition on Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. Weed Res. 38: 207-216.
Kropff, M.J. and van Laar, H.H. 1993. Modelling Crop–Weed Interactions. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Kropff, M.J., Vossen, F.J.H., Spitters, C.J.T. and de Groot, W. 1984. Competition between a maize crop and a natural population of Echinochloa crus-galli (L.). Neth. J. Agri. Sci. 32: 324–327.
McGiffen, M.E., Masiunas, J.B. and Hesketh, J.D. 1992. Competition for light between tomatoes and nightshades (Solanum nigrum or S. ptycanthum). Weed Sci. 40: 220–226.
Mohamadi chalajori, M. 2012. Study the effect of planting date on some of rice genotypes morphological and physiological characteristics. M.Sc. thesis. Islamic Azad University, Chalus Branch. Pp: 72. (In Persian with English summary).
Mohler, C.L. 2001. Enhancing the competitive ability of crops. In Ecological management of agricultural weeds, ed. M. Liebman, C. L. Mohler, and C. P. Staver, 269–321. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mozafarian, V. 1995. Dictionary of Iranian Plants Name. Iran: Farhang Moaser Press. (In Persian). 671 Pp.
Orooji, K., Rashed Mohassel, M.H., Rezvani Moghadam, P. and Nassiri Mahalati, M.2014. Effects of Type and Different Nitrogen Rates on Egyptian Broomrape (Orobanch aegyptica) Control in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). J. Plant Protec. 28: 184-193. (In Persian with English summary).
Perera, K.K., Ayres, P.G. and Gunasena, H.P.M. 1992. Root growth and the relative importance of root and shoot competition in interactions between rice (Oryza sativa) and Echinochloa crus-galli. Weed Res. 32: 67–76.
Santos, B.M., Dusky, J.A., Stall, W.M., Shilling, D.G. and Bewick, T.A. 1998. Phosphorus effects on competitive interactions of smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) with lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Weed Sci. 46: 307–312.
Spencer, D.F. and Ksander, G.G. 1992. Influence of temperature and moisture on vegetative propagule germination of Potamogeton species: implications for aquatic plants management. Aqua. Bota. 43: 351-364.
Walters, C. 1991. Weeds control without poisons. Metairie, LA: Acres USA.
Watt, S.C., Garcia-Berthou. and L.E., Vilar, L. 2007. The influence of water level and salinity on plant assemblages of a seasonally flooded Mediterranean wetland. Plant Eco. 189:71–85.
Wetzel, R.G and Howe, M. J. 1999. Maximizing production in an herbaceous perennial aquatic plant by continuous growth and synchronizing population dynamics. Aqua. Bota. 64: 111–129.
Yaghoubi, B. 2015. Chemical Control of Pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus) and Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in Paddy Fields. Iran. J. Weed Sci. 11: 195-207. (In Persian with English summary).
Yaghoubi, B., Mazaheri, D., Baghestani, M., Alizadeh, A. and Atri, A. 2010. Study the morphological characteristics and growth parameters of indigenous and modified rice varieties interfering with barnyardgrass. 88: 54-68. (In Persian with English summary).
Yoshida, S. 1981. Fundamentals of rice crop science. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. pp.279.
Zhang, Z.P. 2003. Development of chemical weed control and integrated weed management in China. A Review. Weed Biology and Management. 3, 197–203.
Zimdahl, R.L. 2004. Weed-Crop Competition. A Review. Second Edition. . Blackwell Publishing: Pp. 220