تأثیرکشت‌های تابستانه بر تراکم و وزن خشک علف های هرز و عملکرد گندم(Triticumaestivum L.) در استان خوزستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان

2 عضو هیات علمی داتشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 تحقیقات گیاه پزشکی

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر کشت‌های تابستانه بر تراکم و وزن خشک علف های هرز و عملکرد دانه گندم، آزمایشاتی به مدت سه سال (92-93، 93-94 و 94-95)، در سه تکرار و پنج تیمار، در قالب طرح بلوک‌های تصادفی به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای آزمایش عبارت بودند از: کشت گیاه برنج (رقم عنبر بو)، کشت ذرت (رقم سینگل کراس704)، کشت کنجد (رقم بهبهان)، کشت ماش (رقم گوهر) و آیش. در این محصولات، هیچ گونه علف کشی استفاده نشد تا اثر تیمارها بر کشت بعدی مشخص شود. پس از برداشت محصولات فوق در پاییز، کشت گندم (رقم چمران)، در محل کشت‌های قبلی انجام شد و نوع و تراکم علف های هرز، در فواصل 15 و 30 روز پس از اوایل پنجه زنی گندم و وزن خشک علف‌های هرز اندازه‌گیری شدند و در پایان آزمایش نیز عملکرد گندم اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که در مجموع، چنانچه مبنای قضاوت، تعداد، وزن خشک علف های هرز (بین 55 تا 90 درصد نسبت به شاهد) و همچنین عملکرد دانه گندم(بین 80 تا 200 درصد افزایش نسبت به شاهد) قرار گیرد، در اراضی که مستعد کشت برنج باشند، محصول گندم بعدی، گاهی بی نیاز استفاده ازعلف کش خواهد بود و همچنین در مناطقی که می‌توان گیاه ذرت علوفه ای و یا دانه‌ای را کشت کرد، به دلیل آبیاری های مکرر و همچنین آماده سازی برای کشت (نوعی خاکورزی)، از تعداد علف های هرز گندم کشت بعدی، کاسته می‌شود و مصرف علف کش ها بسیار کاهش می یابد. نتایج سه ساله آزمایش نشان داد که کشت های تابستانه می‌توانند، بانک بذرعلف‌های هرز مهمی مانند یولاف وحشی (Avena ludoviciana Dur.) و جودره (Hordeum spantaneum C. Koch.) و علف‌های هرز پهن برگ را به سرعت کاهش دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of summer crops on weeds densities and biomass and wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) yield in Khuzestan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • reza pourazar 1
  • Parviz Rezvani 2
  • Mohamad Hasan Rashed Mohasel 3
  • Eskanar Zand 4
1 aculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Khuzestan
2 Professor University of Ferdosi of Mashad
3 university Mashad of Ferdowsi
4 Aculty of Weed science
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effects of summer cultivation of crops on weeds densities and biomass as well as yield and performance of following planted wheat, field studies were carried out in Shavoor Research Station (Ahvaz, Khuzestan) over 3 years (2013-2016) using 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included rice-wheat, corn-wheat, sesame-wheat, mung bean-wheat and fallow-wheat rotations. The crops and weed densities and types had been observed during the year before the experiment, and no herbicides were used in all experiments to understand the pure effects of treatments. The main crop (wheat) was planted after autumn harvesting of above-mentioned crops. Densities and types of weeds were recorded 15 and 30 days after wheat primary tillering stage, and weed dry weights and grain yield were measured at the end of experiment. Results of this study indicated that considering the indices of weeds number and biomass (55-90%) as well as wheat yield (80-220%), wheat might not require to any herbicides after rice cultivation. Moreover, in the grain or forage corn planted fields, herbicide application is declined significantly, due to several and irrigations and frequent tillage. The whole three-years outcome of the experiments demonstrated that summer cultivation of crops might lead to sharp decline in the seed banks of important weeds such as wild oat (Avena ludoviciana), wild barley (Hordeum spantaneum) and some main broad leaf weed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corn
  • fallow
  • mung bean
  • rice
  • sesame

Baghestani, M.A. Zand, E., Pourazar, R., Veisi, M. and Mohammadipour, M. 2007. Evaluating efficacy of Apyrus 75 WG (Sulfosulfuron) in controlling different species of Hordeum spp. in wheat fields (Final report). Dept. of Weed Research, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection. (In Persian with English summary).

Bahrani, B. 1998. Role of crop rotations in sustainable agricultural systems in key articles of the Fourth Congress of Agronomy and Plant Breeding.14-15. Isfahan University Press.page78.

Booth, B., Murphy S. and Swanton C. 2003. Weed Ecology. CABI publishing. London, UK. 380 Pp.

Chekankov, V. 2010. Improvement of cultivation technology elements of winter wheat in the northern zone of the Krasnodar region. Agricultural University of Tajikistan 22.

Ditomaso, J.M., Kyser G.B., Kyser, G.B., Oneto, S.R., Wilson, R.G., Orloff, S.B., Anderson, L.W., Wright, S.D., Roncoroni, J.A., Miller, T.L., T.S., Prather, Ransom, C., Beck, K.G., Duncan, C., Wilson, K.A. and Mann, J.J. 2013.Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States. Weed Research and Information Center, University of California. 544 pp.

Dolijanovic, Z., Kovacevic. D., N. MoMirovic, S. Oljaca and Z. Jovovic. 2014. Effects of crop rotations on weed infestation in winter wheat. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci. 20: 190-194.

Ego, K., Thomas, B., Gand, A. and C. Swanton. 2000. Modelling germination of Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.). Proceedings of the Nationa Meeting – Expert Committee on Weeds, 47-50.

Khajepor, M.A. 1994. Industrial Crop production. Esfahan University of Jihad Center Publisher, Iran. 250 Pp. (In Persian).

Khucheki, E. 2004. Weeds of ecology. Mashad University of Jihad center Publisher, Iran. 244Pp. (In Persian).

Francis C. 1986. Multiple cropping systems. Mac Millan Publishing Company.

Hyvonen, T. and Salonen, J. 2002. Weed species diversity and community composition in cropping practices at two intensity levels. Plant Ecol.154: 73- 81.

Liebman, M. and Dyck, E. 1993. Crop rotation and intercropping strategies for weed management. Ecol. Appl. 3: 92- 122.

Lotz L.A.P., Groeneveld, R.M.W., Habekotte B. and Oene H.V. 1991. Reduction of growth and reproduction of Cyperus esculentus by specific crops. Weed Res. 31: 153- 60.

Mehta, P. and Gaudencio, C.A. 1999. The Effects of tillage practices and crop rotation in the epidemiology of some major wheat diseases. Pp: 266-283.      

Nikneshan, P., Karimmojeni, H., Moghanibashi, M. and Sadat Hosseini, N. 2011. Allelopathic potential of sunflower on weed management in safflower and wheat. Aust. J. of Crop Sci. 5: 14-34.

Norris, R. F. 2007. Weed fecundity: Current status and future needs. Crop prot. 26: 182-188.

Parpanchi, S.S., H.A., Biabani, A.and O. Mohamad Aarof,. 2011. Study of crop rotation systems on wheat weed control. 1st Congress of National Science and Technology in Agriculture, Zanjan, Zanjan University.15Pp.

Pourazar, R. and Baghestani. M.A. 2011.Effect different irrigation of Corn (Zea mayes) on weeds in wheat. Final Report. Agriculture resource center and natural resource in khuzestan. 54Pp.

Pourazar, R. 2010. Effect Clopralid herbicide in mixture with herbicides of narrow leaves. Report. Agriculture resource center and natural resource in khuzestan. 74Pp.

Pourazar, R., Rezvani-Moghadam, P., Rashed Mohasel, M.H. and E. Zand. 2015. Effect Tillage and cultural of summer on weed of wheat. The First Electronic Conference on New Findings in the Environment and Agricultural Ecosystems.15 Pp.

Robert. P. Zentner and David, D. 2002. Economic of crop diversification and soil tillage opportunities in the Canadian prairies. Agron. J. 94: 216-230.

Rounsevell, M.D., Reginster, A., Metzger, I.M. J. and Leemans, R. 2005. Future scenarios of European agricultural Land use I. Estimating changes in crop productivity. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ.107:101-116.

Saedi, G.H. 2002. Guide salinity. Mashhad University Publications. 112 Pp.

Esfandiary, H. and Jalali. A.H. 2013. Effect of different tillage systems and crop rotation on wild barley density changesin wheat fields. Abstract of the 20nd Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Rasht. Iran.

 

Shahzad, M., Farooq, M., Jabran, K., and M. Hussain. 2016. Impact of different crop rotations and tillage systems on weed infestation and productivity of bread wheat. Crop Protection, 89, 161-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2016.07.019

Weber, G., Elemo, K. and Legoke, S. 1995. Weed communities in intensified cereal based cropping systems on the northern guinea savana. Weed Res. 35: 167- 178.

Zand, E., Bena-Kashani, F., Baghestani, M.A., Maknali, A., Minbashi, M. and Soufizadeh, S. 2007. Investigating the distribution of resistant wild oat (Avena ludoviciana) populations to clodinafop-propargil herbicide in south western Iran. Environ. Sci. 3: 85-92. (In Persian with English summary).