تأثیر کاربرد پیش از برداشت علف‌کش بر تولید و ویژگی‌های بذر گندم و علف‌هرز شیرین بیان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

سمپاشی پیش از برداشت گندم (Spray-topping) ، روشی برای کاهش تولید بذر، بنیه بذر و جوانه­زنی بذر‌ علف‌های هرزی است که موفق به فرار از روش‌های کنترل شده‌اند و با تولید بذر، باعث افزایش بانک بذر خاک می‌شوند. هدف از این تحقیق، بررسی تأثیر سمپاشی پیش از برداشت بر ویژگی‌های بذر گندم و شیرین بیان در مراحل مختلف رشد گندم می‌باشد. به این منظور، آزمایش مزرعه ای در سال 1394، به صورت کرت‌های دوبار خرد شده و در سه تکرار، در شهرستان شهرکرد در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری انجام گرفت. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل مراحل مختلف رشد دانه گندم شامل شیری، خمیری و رسیدگی، به عنوان کرت‌های اصلی، کاربرد علف‌کش‌های گلایفوسیت (SL 41%) و پاراکوات (SL 20%) به عنوان کرت‌های فرعی و غلظت‌های مختلف علف‌کش (صفر، یک، دو و سه لیتر در هکتار) به عنوان کرت‌های فرعی فرعی بودند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که اعمال دو علف‌کش در مراحل مختلف رشد، تاثیر متفاوتی بر ویژگی‌های بذر گندم و شیرین بیان (درصد جوانه‌زنی، سرعت جوانه‎‌زنی و بنیه بذر) داشت. در این مطالعه مشخص شد که در مرحله رسیدگی دانه گندم، کاربرد علف‌کش گلایفوسیت به میزان یک لیتر در هکتار، حداقل تأثیر منفی را بر روی ویژگی‌های بذر  گندم و بیشترین تأثیر منفی را بر روی ویژگی‌های بذر شیرین  بیان داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of pre-harvest application of herbicides on the seed production and properties of wheat and Glycyrrhiza glabra

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohammad eskandari shahraki 1
  • hasan alizadeh 2
  • Mostafa Oveisi 3
1 tehran univercity
2 Professor of University of Tehran
3 Associate Professor of University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Pre-harvest application of herbicides is considered as a way for decreasing seed production, vigour and germination of the weeds that have escaped from weed control methods and have the ability to increase the soil seed banks by producing their seeds. This study conducted to investigate the effects of pre-harvesting spraying on properties of wheat and Glycyrrhiza glabra seeds in different growth stages of wheat. This method also may cause damages to the crop seeds. A field experiment was carried out in split-split plot design with three replications. Experiment treatments consisted of different growth stages of wheat (milky, dough and seed ripening) as main plots, application of glyphosate (SL 41%) and paraquat (SL 20%) herbicides as sub-plots and different concentrations of herbicides (0, 1, 2 and 3 liters per hectare) as sub-sub plots. The results indicated that herbicides applied at different growth stages showed different effects on the properties of wheat and G. glabra seeds. Glyphosate and paraquat had different effects on the properties of wheat and G. glabra seeds. Given the various concentration levels of herbicides applied, different results related to different concentrations of herbicide were obtained. Application of 1 l/ha glyphosate at the seed ripening stage showed the lowest negative impact on the properties of wheat seeds and the highest negative effect on the properties of of G. glabra seeds.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Glyphosate
  • Paraquat
  • Seed index
  • Spray-topping
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