تاثیر فواصل عاری از علف هرز بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی درختان پسته (Pistacia vera)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد شناسایی و مبارزه با علف‌های هرز، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، ص. پ. 336-14115، تهران ، ایران

3 گروه تحقیقات گیاهان باغی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان قم

چکیده

به منظور تعیین اثر علف‌های‌هرز بر صفات مختلف درختان پسته آزمایشی در سال زراعی 95-1394، در منطقه قمرود استان قم، در قالب طرح بلوک‌ کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام ­شد. بر اساس دوره بحرانی رقابت و با توجه به فنولوژی درختان پسته، دو گروه تیمار، شامل تیمارهای کنترل و تیمارهای تداخل با علف‌هرز، در نظر گرفته شدند. در گروه اول، علف‎های هرز تا پایان تورم جوانه، انتهای گلدهی، انتهای شکل‎گیری میوه، شروع پرشدن مغز و پایان پرشدن مغز، کنترل شدند و درگروه دوم، به علف‎های‌هرز اجازه داده شد تا با درختان پسته در هر کرت، تا زمان‎های گفته شده رقابت کنند و پس از آن، تا پایان فصل، علف‏های هرز حذف شدند. در این آزمایش، علف‌هرز سلمه‌تره (Chenopodium album L.) و پنجه‌مرغی (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) با 83/21 درصد، بیش‎ترین درصد فراوانی در کرت‎های آزمایشی را داشتند. مهم‎ترین صفات تأثیرپذیر از تیمارها بر اساس تجزیه به مولفه‌های اصلی شامل درصد خندانی، درصد دهان بسته، انس و عملکرد بودند. تیمار عاری از علف‌هرز تا شروع پرشدن مغز، با میانگین 91/3 کیلوگرم به ازای هر درخت، بیش‎ترین عملکرد و تیمار تداخل با علف‌هرز تا پایان تورم جوانه، با میانگین 69/2 کیلوگرم به ازای هر درخت، کم‎ترین عملکرد به‌دست آمده در این آزمایش بود. در مجموع و با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش، دو بار کنترل علف‌های‌هرز، یک‌بار در پایان تورم جوانه‎‏ها و یک‌بار پس از پایان شکل‎گیری میوه تا شروع پرشدن مغز پسته، در این منطقه توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of weed-free intervals on the quantitative and qualitatitive characteristics of pistachio (Pistacia vera)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Reza Faghihi-Sereshki 1
  • Ali Mokhtassi-Bidgoli 2
  • Mohammad Reza Naeini 3
1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, PO Box 14115-336, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, PO Box 14115-336, Tehran, Iran
3 Horticulture Crops Research Department, Qom Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Qom, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of weeds on the different characteristics of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.), an experiment was conducted in Qom, during 2015-2016 growing season. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were based on the competition critical period and the phenological stages of pistachio in two series. The first series consisted of weed removed until the end of the swelling of the bud, the end of flowering, the end of nutshell growth, the beginning of kernel filling and the end of kernel filling and then weed maintained until harvest. The second series consisted of weed maintaining until mentioned stages and then weed removed until harvest. In addition, two control treatments (weed free and weed infested for all of the growing season) were applied. In this experiment, Chenopodium album and Cynodon dactylon, with 21.83%, had the highest frequency.  The most important traits influenced by treatments, based on principal components analysis, were splitting and un-splitting percentages, size at ounce and yield. Weed-free until the beginning of kernel filling treatment, with an average yield of 3.91 kg/tree had the highest and treatment weed interference until the end of the swelling of the bud treatment with an average yield of 2.69 kg/tree had the lowest yields in the experiments. Totally, with regard to the results of present research, two times weed control, one time the end of sprouting and the other at the end of nutshell growth until the beginning of kernel filling, would be recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Critical period
  • phenological stages
  • pistachio
  • weed
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