بررسی جنبه‌های زیستی خواب، جوانه‌زنی و سبز شدن بذرهای ارشته خطایی (Lepyrodiclis holosteoides

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات - دانشکده کشاورزی - دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 گروه اگروتکنولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 عضو هیات علمی مرکز تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی کشور

چکیده

در طی سال‏های اخیر، ارشته‏خطایی(Lepyrodiclis holosteoides)  به یکی از مشکل‏ساز‏ترین علف‏های‏هرز پهن‏برگ مزارع گندم و کلزا در مناطق معتدل و سرد‏سیر کشور تبدیل شده است. با توجه به اهمیت زمان سبز‏شدن در میزان موفقیت علف‏های‏هرز در بوم‏نظام‏های زراعی و هم‏چنین اتخاذ راه‏کارهای مدیریتی کارآمد علیه این علف‏هرز مهاجم، مطالعاتی در زمینه برخی جنبه‏های زیستی حاکم بر خواب و جوانه‏زنی بذرهای  این علف‏هرز، در مزارع شهرستان کرج و بخش علف‏های‏هرز موسسه تحقیقات گیاه‏پزشکی کشور، در سال‏های 1396-1393 انجام شد. بر اساس نتایج این بررسی، بذرهای ارشته‏خطایی از پدیده چند‏شکلی در خواب بذر برخوردارند و این‏گونه به‏نظر می‏رسد که خواب حاکم بر این بذرها، از نوع خواب فیزیولوژیک (مربوط به مواد بازدارنده داخل بذر و تعادل هورمونی بین آبسیزیک اسید و ‏جیبرلیک اسید) باشد. هم‏چنین بذرهای ارشته‏خطایی در فرایند جوانه‏زنی، حساسیت بسیار بالایی به نور نشان دادند. نخستین تاریخ سبز‏شدن ارشته‏خطایی، در نیمه دوم آبان‏ماه رخ داد و قدرت رویش بذر این علف‏هرز، با افزایش طول عمر بذرها، کاهش چشم‏گیری نشان داد. اگرچه بر اساس یافته های این بررسی، ارشته‏خطایی از موج‏های متعدد سبز‏شدن برخوردار است (که به احتمال قوی، این پدیده ناشی از چند شکلی خواب بذرهای  است)؛ با این حال، بیش از 85 درصد از سبز‏شدن دانه‏رست‏ها با دریافت 552 درجه-روز رشد حرارت محیطی تجمعی و در بازه زمانی 12 آذر‏ماه تا 12 دی‏ماه به انجام رسید.
ید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The study of dormancy, germination and emergence biological aspects of jagged-chickweed (Lepyrodiclis holosteoides) seeds

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Sarhaddi 1
  • Mehdi Rastgoo 1
  • Ebrahim Ezadi Darbandi 1
  • Ali Ghanbari 2
  • Mohammad Baghestani 3
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding - Faculty of Agriculture - Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Department of Agrotechnology - Faculty of Agriculture - Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Department of Weed Research, Iranian Institute of Plant Protection
چکیده [English]

In the recent years, false jagged-chickweed (Lepyrodiclis holosteoides) has become one of the most problematic broadleaf weeds in wheat and canola fields of temperate and cold regions of Iran. Due to the the importance of the time of emergence of seedlings in the success of weed competition in crop ecosystems and consequently, the use of effective weed management methods, a series of studies were conducted in the fields of Karaj and in the Weed Research Department of Iranian Institute of Plant Protection (Tehran) during 2013-2016 to determine the biological aspects of dormancy and germination of this invasive weed seeds. Results showed that there is polymorphism in seed dormancy of false jagged-chickweed. Dormancy of false jagged-chickweed seeds can be classified in the physiological category (which is related to the presence of chemical inhibitors inside the seed and the hormonal balance between Abscisic acid and Gibberellic acid). Also, seeds of false jagged-chickweed are very photo sensitive in the germination process. The results showed that first date of the emergence of false jagged-chickweed occurred in the second half of November and seed vigor of this weed reduced significantly by increasing of seeds longevity. Lepyrodiclis seedlings emerged in form of multiple flashes during autumn and winter, however more than 85 percent of total emerged seedlings appeared after receiving 552 GDD over the period of December 12th to January 12th.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Darkness
  • Green light
  • Growing Degree Days (GDD)
  • Polymorphism
  • seed longevity
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