عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Mouse barley (Hordeum murinum), from the poaceae family, is an abundant annual grass weed in wheat fields of South Khorasan province. Determining the ecological factors of this grass weed will contribute to development of its control programs. Effects of environmental factors on germination and emergence of mouse barley was investigated in the laboratory. Although mouse barley germination was greater than 85% at salinity level of 160 mM, further increase of salinity caused a remarkable decrease in its germination, following a 3% decrease in germination at salinity level of 320mM. Increasing osmotic potential from 0 to -0.8 MPa, resulted in an 80% decrease in its germination. Mouse barley germination was not affected by the pH and in a pH range of 4 to 10 remained approximately 90%. Emergence depth test showed that the maximum emergence of mouse barley occurred for seeds placed on the soil surface (86%) and no seedlings emerged from the seeds buried at 10cm depth. High germination ability of mouse barley under diverse environmental conditions may greatly contribute to it as a problematic weed species in the wheat fields of the region
nderson, S. 1990. The relationship between seed dormancy, seed size and weediness, in Crepis tectorum (Asteraceae). Oecologia 83: 277-280.
Baker, H. G. 1974. The evolution of weeds. Annual Review of Ecology Systematics 5:1-24.
Baskin, C. C. and Baskin, J. M. 1998. Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. San Diego: Academic Press. Pp. 27–47.
Buhler, D. D. 1997. Effects of tillage light environment on emergence of 13 annual weeds. Weed Technology 11:496-501.
Chachalis, D. and Reddy, K. N. 2000. Factors affecting Campsis radicans seed germination and seedling emergence. Weed Science 48:212–216.
Chauhan, B. S., Gill, G. & Preston, C. 2006a. Factors affecting seed germination of annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus) in southern Australia. Weed Science 54:658–668.
Chauhan, B. S., Gill, G. and Preston, C. 2006b. African mustard (Brassica tournefortii) germination in southern Australia. Weed Science 54:891–897.
Chauhan, B. S. and Johnson, D. E. 2008. Seed germination and seedling emergence of giant sensitiveplant (Mimosa invisa). Weed Science 56:244–248.
Cocks, P. S. and Donald, C. M. 1973. The germination and establishment of two annual pasture grasses (Hordeum leporinum Link. and Lolium rigidum Gaud.). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 24: 1-10.
Cohen, D. 1966. Optimizing reproduction in a randomly varying environment. Journal of Theoretical Biology 12:119-129.
Davison, A. W. 1977. The ecology of Hordeum murinum L. III. Some effects of adverse climate. Journal of Ecology 65: 523-530.
Dean, S. A. 1990. Hordeum murinum spp. leporinum—wild barley. Element Stewardship Abstract. The Nature Conservancy. Available online at: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/hordmu1.html; accessed May 2004.
Dunbabin, M. T. and Cocks, P. S. 1999. Ecotypic variation for seed dormancy contributes to the success of capeweed (Arctotheca calendula) in Western Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50: 1451-1458.
Forooghifar, H. and Shahidi, A. 1998. A case study of morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of farmland soils of South Khorasan province. Birjand University, Iran, Pp 32-67.(In Persian with English Summary).
Grime, J. P. and Jarvis, B. C. 1976. Shade avoidance and shade tolerance in flowering plants II. Effects of light on the germination of species of contrasted ecology. Reprinted from: Light as an Ecological Factor :II, The 16th Symposium of the British Ecological Society, 1974, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, Pp 525-532.
Groves, R. H., Austin, M. P. and Kaye, P. E. 2003. Competition between Australian native and introduced grasses along a nutrient gradient. Australian Journal of Ecology 28: 491-498.
Halloran, G. M. and Pennell, A. L. 1981. Regenerative potential of barley grass (Hordeum leporinum). Journal of Applied Ecology 18: 805-813.
Khan, M.A. and Rizvi, Y. 1994. Effect of salinity, temperature, and growth regulators on the germination and early seedling growth of Atriplex griffithii var. stocksii. Canadian Journal of Botany 72: 475–479.
Khan, M. A. and Ungar, I. A. 1997. Effect of thermoperiod on recovery of seed germination of halophytes from saline conditions. American Journal of Botany 84: 279–283.
Koger, C. H., Reddy, K. N. and Poston, D. H. 2004. Factors affecting seed germination, seedling emergence, and survival of texasweed (Caperonia palustris). Weed Science 52:989–995.
Michel, B. E. 1983. Evaluation of the water potentials of solutions of polyethylene glycol 8000 both in the absence and presence of other solutes. Pl. Physiol 72:66–70.
Milberg, P., Andersson, L. and Noronha, A. 1996. Seed germination after short-duration light exposure: implications for the photo-control of weeds. Journal of Applied Ecology 33:1469–1478.
Milberg, P., Andersson, L. and Thompson, K. 2000. Large-seeded species are less dependent on light for germination than small-seeded ones. Seed Science Research 10:99–104.
Nandula, V. K., Eubank, T. W., Poston, D. H., Koger, C. H. and Reddy, K. N. 2006. Factors affecting germination of horseweed (Conyza canadensis). Weed Science 54:898-902.
Norsworthy, J. K. and Oliveira, M. J. 2006. Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) germination and emergence as affected by environmental factors and seeding depth. Weed Science 54: 903-909.
Piggin, C. M., Hallett, M. L. and Smith, D. F. 1973. The germination response of seed of some annual pasture plants to alternating temperatures. Seed Science Technology 1: 739-748.
Popay, A. I. and Sanders, P. 1975. Effect of depth of burial on seed germination and seedling emergence of barley grass (Hordeum murinum L.). New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture 3: 77-80.
Popay, A. I. 1981. Germination of seeds of five annual species of barley grass. Journal of Applied Ecology 18: 547-558.
Roberts, H .A. 1986. Persistence of seeds of some grass species in cultivated soil. Grass and Forage Science 41: 273-276.
Schutz, W., Milberg, P. and Lamont, B. B. 2002. Seed dormancy, after-ripening and light requirements of four annual Asteraceae in South-western Australia. Annals of Botany 90: 707-714.
Tareghian, M. R. 2002. Identification of weeds of cereal farms in South Khorasan. Research project, Faculty of Agriculture, Birjand University.( In Persian with English Summary).
USDA, ARS. 2005. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: http://www.arsgrin.gov/var/apache/cgibin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?300618 (April 14, 2005).