بررسی قدرت رقابتی ارقام گندم نان آزاد نو طی سالهای 1335 تا 1376 در مقابل علف هرز یولاف وحشی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری

2 محقق

3 استاد دانشگاه

چکیده

معرفی شده در فرآیندهای به نژادی آن از سال 1335 تا (Triticum aestivum.) برای ارزیابی ارقام گندم 1380 در اراک اجرا شد. گندم ارقام امید، بزوستای ا، آزادی، - 1376 ، یک آزمایش صحرایی در سال زراعی 1381 1379 و 1379 آزاد شده اند ، در ،1368 ،1358 ،1348 ، قدس، الموت و الوند که به ترتیب در سال های 1335 کشت گردیدند. نتایج موید روند صعودی عملکرد (Avena fatua L.) رقابت و بدون رقابت با یولاف وحشی 3% در سال به ترتیب در شرایط حضور و عدم حضور علف هرز بود. روند افزایش ی / 2% و 8 / گندم با نرخی حدود 2 سریعتر از حالت بدون رقابت در تیمارهای با علف هرز بیانگر بهبود توانایی رقابتی ارقام جدید بود . شاخص و ز یست توده در ارقام جدید نسبت به ارقام قدیمی افزایش یافت . 74 % افزایش عملکرد توسط (HI) برداشت شاخص برداشت قابل توجیه بود و 24 % باقیمانده افزایش عملکرد به افزایش تولید ز ی توده نسبت داده م ی شود . وجود نداشت . ولی شرایط (K) تفاوت معن ی داری بین ارقام از نظر کارایی مصرف نور و ضریب استهلاک نوری حضور علف هرز، بطور معنی داری کارایی مصرف نور ر ا کاهش داد . کارایی مصرف نور روندی فزاینده را در ارتباط 0% در سال / 0% و 14 / با سال آزادسازی نشان داد و به ترتیب در شرایط حضور و عدم حضور علف هرز با نرخ 7 0 گرم بر / 1 و 83 / افزایش پیدا کرد . کارایی مصرف نور در شرایط حضور و عدم حضور علف هرز به ترتیب برابر 3 مگاژول (بر حسب تشعشع فعال فتوسنتزی جذب شده ) برآورد شد. شاخص سطح برگ تنها صفتی بود که در طی زمان روند نزولی داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Improvement of Iranian Wheat Cultivars Bred During 1956-1995 in Relation to Wild Oat Competition

نویسندگان [English]

  • m beheshtian-mesgaran 1
  • eskandar zand 2
  • m nassiri mahalati 1
  • hamid rahimian mashadi 3
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the genetic improvement in yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) bred between 1956 and 1995, a field experiment was carried out in Arak, Iran, during the 2001-2002 growing season. Six wheat cultivars, from different years of release (Omid 1956, Bezostaya 1969, Azadi 1979, Ghods 1989, Alamot 1995 and Alvand 1995) were sown with and without competition from wild oat (Aven fatua). The results showed a trend to increasing yield at later release dates with a rate of 2.2 % yr-1 and 3.8% yr-1 under weed free and weedy conditions, respectively. The greater yield increase obtained in weedy conditions indicates an improvement in the potential competitive abilities of new cultivars. Harvest Index (HI) and biomass were highest in new cultivars. Increased HI could explain 74% of the gain in yield, whereas, the remaining 26% of yield improvement was attributed to increases in biomass. There were no differences betweencultivars in extinction coefficients (K) and Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE). However, RUE was reduced significantly in weedy conditions. RUE increased with the year of release by 0.77% yr-1 and 0.14% yr-1 under weed free and weedy conditions, respectively. Average RUE values of of 1.3 g MJ-1 (in terms of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, APAR) and M. Beheshtian-Mesgaran et al. 33 0.83 g MJ-1 were estimated in weed free and weedy conditions, respectively. Leaf area index (LAI) was the only component that decreased as year of release increased.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Weed competition
  • Radiation Use Efficiency
  • Harvest index
  • biomass
  • Leaf Area Index
  • Extinction coefficient
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