اثرات بستر بذر زود هنگام (ماخار) بر کاهش جمعیت جودره ( Hordeum spontaneum ) در زراعت گندم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 موسسه تحقیقات پنبه

2 موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی

3 مرکز تحقیقات چهارمحال بختیاری

چکیده

علف‌هرز جودره در مناطق مختلف کشور به عنوان عامل مهم و بازدارنده در افزایش عملکرد گندم می‌باشد. کنترل آن با استفاده از ماخار گامی در جهت نیل به کشاورزی پایدار در گندم می‌باشد. بدین منظور آزمایشی در سال‌‌های زراعی1387-1386 و 88-1387 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی کشور در ورامین انجام شد. در سال اول جودره و گندم رقم کویر، جهت آلودگی مزرعه، در مجاورت یکدیگر کشت شدند و در تابستان پس از برداشت گندم، آزمایشی با 9 تیمار انجام گرفت. تیمارهای آزمایش عبارت بودند از: 1- شخم زمین و کاشت چهار ردیف ذرت رقم سینگل کراس 704 در آن و آبیاری هفته‌ای یکبار تا زمان برداشت ذرت، 2- شخم زمین و هفته‌ای یکبار آبیاری تا زمان برداشت ذرت در تیمار 1، تیمارهای 3، 4، 5، 6، 7، 8 و 9 بدون هیچ گونه عملیات خاک‌ورزی و فقط یکبار آبیاری در تاریخ‌های مختلف در این تیمارها. پس از اعمال آخرین تیمار، در تابستان 87 کلیه کرت‌‌ها شخم خورده و گندم کشت گردید. نتایج نشان داد علیرغم آبیاری تیمارها پس از برداشت گندم سال اول، بذر‌های جودره در تیمارهایی که از اواخر مرداد ماه آبیاری شدند سبز گردید. انجام ماخار باعث شد که از تراکم بوته‌های جودره سبز شده همزمان با گندم تا میزان دو سوم (200 بوته در متر مربع) کاسته شود. با کاهش تراکم بوته‌های جودره در پی ماخار، عملکرد دانه گندم تا دو برابر افزایش یافت. از طرفی انجام شخم در زراعت ذرت باعث دفن بذور جودره و کاهش تراکم آن در زمان زراعت ذرت و هم‌زمان با گندم گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Stale Seedbed on the Reduction of Hordeum spontaneum Population in Wheat

چکیده [English]

Hordeum spontaneum C.Koch. is known as a significant factor in decreasing wheat yield. Its control by stale seedbed is a step toward achieving sustainable agriculture in wheat. For this purpose, field experiments were performed during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 in the experimental fields of the Iranian Institute of Plant Protection, Varamin, Iran. In order to contaminate the field with the weed, wheat was planted in association with H. spontaneum, during the first year. After harvesting wheat in the summer, an experiment was conducted with 9 treatments. Treatments included: 1) field plowing after wheat harvesting and corn (Cultivar SC704) planting, irrigating weekly up to corn harvesting, 2) field plowing no corn cultivation, but irriatted up to corn harvesting in treatment 1. Treatments 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 were not plowed but irrigated only once, each at an indicated date (July 4th, July 19th, August 1st, August 18th, September 10th, September 23th, and October 8th). Results revealed that stale seedbed from the middle of August favored H. spontaneum emergence. Thus its density reduced in wheat up to two thirds and wheat grain yield increased two times. Field plowing after wheat harvesting increased H. spontaneum burial depth and reduced its density in corn and wheat.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Weed seed bank
  • Weed Density
  • wheat yield
  • integrated management

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