تاثیر سس زراعی (Cuscuta campestris) بر برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد چغندر‌قند (Beta vulgaris)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات ارومیه

2 دانشگاه ارومیه

3 موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی

4 جهاد دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

استان آذریابجان غربی به دلیل دارا بودن شرایط مطلوب آب وهوایی، دومین قطب تولید چغندر‌قند در ایران می‌باشد. علف‌های‌هرز بخصوص سس زراعی یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل تاثیرگذار بر کاهش عملکرد کمی و کیفی چغندرقند می‌باشند. به منظور ارزیابی تاثیر سس زراعی بر رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی و عملکرد کمی وکیفی چغندرقند، آزمایشی با استفاده از آزمون t جفت شده در سال زراعی 1393 در چهار مزرعه در شهرستان ارومیه انجام شد. مزارع مورد مطالعه تاریخ کاشت یکسان (دهه سوم فروردین ماه)، تراکم یکنواخت (8 بوته در مترمربع) و رقم یکسان (اکباتان) داشتند. در این آزمایش از هر مزرعه، 30 بوته سالم و 30 بوته آلوده به سس انتخاب شدند. ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیک و عملکرد به ترتیب در مرحله استقرار بوته (12-8 برگی) و در زمان برداشت مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان دادند که سس زراعی اثرات منفی برکارآئی فتوسنتزی برگ‌های چغندرقند داشتند، به طوری که کلروفیل a، b و کلروفیل کل به ترتیب 38، 18 و 30 درصد کاهش یافتند، ولی کاروتن تغییر معنی‌داری نداشت. از طرف دیگر صفات عملکرد ریشه 25 درصد، قند 8/1 درصد، عملکرد قند ناخالص 3/24 درصد، عملکرد قند خالص 5/18 درصد و وزن خشک اندام‌های هوایی 18 درصد کاهش یافتند. همچنین نتایج ناخالصی‌های ریشه نشان داد که سس زراعی نیتروژن و سدیم را افزایش داد (به ترتیب 3/37 و 2/28 درصد) و پتاسیم تغییر معنی‌داری نداشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Field Dodder (Cuscuta campestris) on Some Physiological and Yield Traits of Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris)

چکیده [English]

Due to its favorable weather conditions, west Azarbayejan province is the second-largest producer of sugar beet in Iran. Weeds, especially field dodder, is one of the most important components that has negative effects on the quality and quantity of sugarbeet. In order to evaluate the effect of field dodder on the photosynthetic pigments and yield (quality and quantity) of sugar beet, a study using paired t-test was carried out on four farms in Urmieh-West Azarbayejan, during 2014. Studied farms had similar date of planting (first ten days of April), uniform density (8 plants per square meter) and same cultivar (Ecbatan). In this research, 30 healthy plants and 30 plants infected with field dodder were selected from each farm. Physiological and tecnicall characteristics were evaluated at the established plant stage (8-12 leaves) and at the harvest stage of sugerbeet Results showed that dodder affected efficiency of photosynthesis on sugarbeet leaves, such that it reduced chlorophylls a and b and total chlorophyll by 30,18, and 38% respectively, but the amount of carotene was not affected. It also reduced yield by 25%, root sugar content by 108%, impure sugar by 18.5% and foliage dry weight by 18%. Dodder also increased root nitrogen content by 37.3%, but had no effect on potassium content.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carotenoid
  • Chlorophyll
  • Parasitic weed
  • Potassium
  • Sodium

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