عنوان مقاله [English]
In this study shoot extracts of Xanthium strumarium were prepared and analyzed using GC-MS method. Three alkaloids including (coniine (C8H17N), (hyoscyamine (C17H21NO4) and (scopolamine (C17 H21 N1 O4) were found and extracted. The potential allelopathic effects of these compounds were evaluated in a factorial experiment based on RCBD with 3 replications on the germination and seedling growth of six sunflower hybrids including zaria, progress, hyson33, armavirosky, uroflor and bilyzar. Results showed that the three way interaction effect of alkaloid × concentration × hybrid is significant on germination percentage and rate. Highest inhibitory potential was related to coniine and scopolamine, while lowest value was found in hyoscyamine. Increasing the concentration of alkaloid, also increased their inhibitory effect. Root and shoot dry weight of all sunflower hybrids were affected by the inhibitory effect of identify alkaloids. Both these traits were influenced more by scopolamine and Coniine then hyoscyamine. Generally, it was concluded that three different alkaloides exist in burdock which have different allelopathic effects and may influence the next crop plant. The mechanisms which are responsible for the inhibitory effects of these allelochemicals may be useful for finding compounds which as herbicides.
Anaya, M., Pratley, J. and Haig, T. 1999. Allelopathy: From conceet to keality. Australian Agronomy Conference-Pepers.
Avers. C.J. and Guodvin, R.H. 1986. Studies on roots. Iv. Effect of coumarin and scopoletin and the standard root growth pattern of phleum patense. Ame. J. Botany. 43:612-620.
Baratelli, T.D.G., Gomes, A.C.C., Wessjohann, L.A., Kuster, R.M. and Simas, N.K. 2012. Phytochemical and allelopathic studies of Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae). Bio. Syst. Ecolology, 41: 119-125.
Bastians, L., Kropff, M.Y., Puchetty, N.K., Rajan, A. and Migo, T.R. 1977. Can simulation models help design rice cultivars that are more competitive against weeds. Field Crops Res. 51: 101-111.
Bhowmik, P.C. and Doll, J.D. 1983. Growth analysis of corn and soybean responses to allelopathic effects of weed residues at various temperatures and photosynthetic photon flux densities. J. Chem. Ecology. 9:1263-1280.
Chung, I.M., Kim, K.H., Ahn, J.K., Lee, S.B., Kim, S.H. and Hahn, S.J. 2003. Comparison of allelopathic potential of rice leaves, straw, and hull extracts on Barnyardgrass. Agro. J. 95:1063-1070.
Connik, W.J., 1987. Identification of volatile allelocehmicals from Ameranthus palmeris. Wats. J. Chem. Ecology. 13: 463-472.
Dayan, F.E., Romagni, J.G. and Duke, S.O. 2000. Investigating the mode of action of natural phytotoxins. J. Chem. Ecology. 26: 2079-2094.
Dellagreca, M., Marino, C.D., Zarrelli, A. and D'Abrosca, B. 2004. Isolation and phytotoxicity of a pocarotenoids from Chenopodium album. J. Natu. Prod. 67: 1492-5.
Duck, S.O. Scheffler, B.E., Dayan, F. E., Weston, L.A. and Ota, E. 2001. Strategies for using transgenes to produce allelopathic crops. Weed Technol.15: 826-834.
Einhelling, F.A. 1996. Interactions involving allelopathy in cropping systems. Agro. J. 88: 886-893.
El-Khatib, A.A., A.K. Hegazy, and H.K. Gala. 2004. Does allelopathy have a role in the ecology of Chenopodium murale? Ann. Bota. Fen. 41:37-45.
El-Khawas, S.A., and M.M. Shehala. 2005. The allelopathic potentialities of Acacia nilotica and Eucalyptus prostrate on (monocot (Zea maize L.) and (dicot (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants. Biot. 4:23-34.
Evans, W.C. 2007. Pharmacognosy-tryzvavans. Translated by S. Afshari Poordoctor. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Isfahan. pp: 286-291, 393-400.
Fick, G.W., Holt, D.A. and Lugg, D.G. 1988. Environmental physiology and crop growth. P. 163-194. In A. A. Hanson, D.K. Barnes and R.R. Hill (ed.) Alfalfa and alfalfa improvement. Agro. Mono. 29. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI.
Gressel, I. and Holm, L. 1964. Chemical inhibition of crop germination by weed seeds and natural inhibition by Abutilon theophrasti.Weed Rese. 4: 44-53.
Hegde, R.S. and Miller, D.A. 1992. Scanning electron microscopy for studying root morphology and anatomy in alfalfa autotoxicity. Agro. J. 84: 618-621.
Hwang, B. Y., Su, B.N., Chai, H., Mi, Q., Kardono, L.B.S. and Afriastini, J.J. 2004. Silvestrol and episilvestrol, potential anticancer rocaglate derivatives from Aglaiasilvestris. J. Orga. Chem. 69: 3350-3358.
Inderjit, Ddakshini, K.M.M., and Einhelling, F.A. 1993. Allelopathy: Organisms, Processes and Applications. American chemical Society. Washington, DC. 1-24.
Khajepor, M. 2007. Industrial plants. University Press Center 564 Pp (In Persian with English summary).
Khohi, R.K. 1998. Allelopathy and its implications in agroecosystems. Crop Sciences and Recent Advance Editor, A. S. Basra. Haworth Press Inc.
Levitt, J. and Lovett, J. 1984. Activity of allelochemicals of Datura stramonium L. in contrasting soil types. Plant and Soil. 79:181-189.
Llanos, G.G., Varela, R.M., Jimenez, I.A., Molinillo, J.M.G., Macias, F.A. and Bazzocchi, I. L. 2010. Metabolites from Withania aristata with potential phytotoxic activity. Natu. Prod. Comm. 5: 1043-1047.
Macias, F.A., Chinchilla, N., Varela, R.M. and Molinillo, J.M.G. 2006. Bioactivesteroids from Oryza sativa L. Steroids. 71: 603-608.
Maguire, J.D. 1962. Speed of germination aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigor. Crop Sci. 2:176-177.
Mi, K.L., Hee, Y.J., Ki, Y.L., Seung, H.K., Choong, J.M. and Sang, H.S. 2007. Inhibitory constituents of Euscaphis japonica on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in BV2 microglia. Plant Medi. 73: 782-6.
Mizutani, J. 1999. Selected allelochemicals. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 18: 653-671.
Moyer, J.R. and Hung, H.C. 1997. Effect of aqueous extracts of crop residues on germination and seedling growth of ten weed species. Bota. Acad. Sin. 38: 131-139.
Noguchi, H.K., Tamura, K., Sasaki, H and Suenaga, K. 2012. Identification of two phytotoxins, blumenol A and grasshopper ketone, in the allelopathic Japanese rice variety Awaaakamai. J. plant phy.169: 682-685.
Quan Yu, J., Feng Ye, S., Fang Zhang, M. and Haihu, W. 2003. Effect of root extractes and aqueouse root extracts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and allelochemicals on photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes in cucumber. Bio. Syst. Ecol.31: 129-139.
Rawat, L.S., Maikhuri, R.K. and Negi, V.S. 2013. Inhibitory effect of leachate from Helianthus annus on germination and growth of Kharif crops and weeds. Acta Ecologica Sinica. 33: 245-252.
Szarrnyas, I. 2000. Biology, Damage and possibilities of protection of some summer annual weeds, annual mercury (Mercurias annual L.,) redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) occurring in suger beet. PhD. Thesis. The University of Tenesse.
Themelis, D.G., Kika, F.S. and Economou, A. 2006. Flow injection direct spectrophotometric assay for the speciation of trace chromium (III) and chromium (VI) using chromotropic acid as chromogenic reagent. Talant. 69: 615–620.
Uygur, F.N. and N. Iskenderoglu, 1995. Allelopathic and bioherbicidal effect of the parts of plant residues on growth of both weeds and corn. VII. Tuik. Phytopatol. Conger., 26-29 Sept. 1995, 460- 457. Adana Turkey. pp: 460-467.
Vyvyan, J.R. 2002. Allelochemicals for new herbicides and agrochemicals. Tetrahedron. 58: 1631-1646.
Weir, T.L., Park, S. W. and Vivanco, J.M. 2004. Biochemical and physiological mechanisms mediated by allelochemicals. Current Opin. Plant Bio. 7: 472-479.
Weissbach, A., Bechemin, C., Genauzeau, S., Rudstrom, M. and Legrand, C. 2012. Impact of Alexandrium tamarense allelochemicals on DOM dynamics in an estuarine microbial community. Harmful Algae. 13: 58-64.
Whittaker, R.H. and Feeny, P.P. 1971. Allelochemics: Chemical interactions between species. Science Maga. 171: 757-770.