برهمکنش ذرت - علف‌های هرز به تاریخ‌های مختلف کاشت گیاهان پوششی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده کشاورزی ساری

2 موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر تاریخ‌های مختلف کاشت گیاهان پوششی بر روابط ذرت- علف هرز و همچنین عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت (Zea mays L.) رقم سینگل کراس 704 آزمایشی در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه آموزشی-پژوهشی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری در سال زراعی 1390 اجرا شد. تیمار‌های مورد بررسی شامل سه گیاه‌پوششی سویا (Glycine max L.)، شنبلیله (Trigonella foenum gracum L.) و لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی   (Vigna unguiculata L.) در دو تاریخ مختلف کاشت (همزمان با گیاه ذرت و 21 روز بعد از کاشت گیاه ذرت) همراه با دو شاهد (بدون وجین و با وجین) بود. نتایج بدست آمده نشان داد که کاشت گیاهان پوششی سویا در زمان اول و دوم، شنبلیله در زمان اول و دوم و لوبیا چشم بلبلی در زمان اول‌ و دوم باعث کاهش به ترتیب 96، 93، 83، 68، 91 و 97 درصد زیست توده علف‌های هرز شدند. همچنین این گیاهان پوششی به‌ ترتیب باعث کاهش 90، 85، 64، 52، 81 و 90 درصد تراکم علف‌های هرز و 73، 62، 51، 17، 62 و 80 درصد ارتفاع علف‌های‌ ‌‌‌‌هرز در مجموع سه مرحله نمونه‌برداری نسبت به تیمار بدون وجین گردیدند. همچنین کمترین عملکرد دانه ذرت با Kg/ h-1 1/5246 مربوط به تیمار شاهد (بدون وجین) و بیشترین عملکرد دانه ذرت  Kg/ h-13/11853 و 4/11447 مربوط به تیمار شاهد (با وجین) و زمان دوم کاشت لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی بود. به طور کلی این تحقیق نشان داد زراعت گیاهان پوششی بقولات همراه با مدیریت‌های مناسب می‌تواند جایگزین مطلوبی برای روش‌های کنترل شیمیایی در کنترل علف‌های هرز باشد که در نهایت موجب افزایش بهره‌وری نهاده‌ها و رسیدن به اهداف کشاورزی پایدار خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Corn- weed Interaction under Different Sowing Dates of Cover Crops

نویسندگان [English]

  • shahram nazari 1
  • faezeh zafarian 1
  • Esfandiar farahmandfar 1
  • Eskandar zand 2
  • Milad Bagheri shirvan 1
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effect of planting time of cover crops on corn-weed interaction, an experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications was conducted in Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growth season of 2010. Treatments consisted of three cover crops (soybean (Glycine max L.), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum gracum L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)) in two different planting dates (simultaneous with corn and 21 days after planting of corn), along with two controls (no weeding and weeding). Results showed planting the cover crops soybean, fenugreek and cowpea in the first and second dates reduced by 96, 93, 83, 68, 91 and 97 percent of weeds biomass. Also, these cover crops reduced was density by 90, 85, 64, 52, 81 and 90 percent and weed density, 73, 62, 51, 17, 62 and 80 percent, in all three samplings compared to treatments without weeding, respectively. The lowest yield of corn grain was 5246/1 Kgh-1 in plots with no weeding and the highest was 11853/13 and 11447/4 Kgh-1 in plots with complete weeding and cowpea in the second date of planting, respectively. The results of this research showed that use of leguminous cover crops with suitable management is a good weed management system which increases efficiency of input and brings us closer to sustainable agriculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cover crops
  • Corn
  • Weeds
  • Grain yield
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