اثر سطوح نیتروژن، میزان بذر و تداخل علف‌های‌هرز بر رشد و عملکرد گندم رقم شیراز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دانشگاه شیراز

2 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر نیتروژن و تراکم بوته گندم بر رشد و عملکرد گندم در شرایط تداخل علف هرز، آزمایشی در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز در دو سال زراعی 89-1388 و 90-1389 در قالب کرت های دوبار خرد شده با سه تکرار اجرا گردید. تیمار ها شامل حضور و عدم حضور علف هرز، نیتروژن (50، 100 و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار ) و تراکم گندم (180، 225، 270 و 315 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بود.  نتایج نشان داد علف ‌های هرز با تاثیر بر رشد و اجزای عملکرد دانه گندم بطور معنی داری عملکرد دانه را تا 07/43 درصدکاهش دادند. با افزایش نیتروژن از 50 به 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار عملکرد دانه بطور معنی‌داری به میزان 83/29 درصد (4/3840 در مقابل 4986 کیلوگرم در هکتار) افزایش یافت ولی در برهمکنش با علف هرز باعث افزایش وزن خشک علف ‌های هرز بطور معنی داری شد و به نظر می رسد نیتروژن اضافی قادر به جبران خسارت ناشی از حضور علف هرز نباشد. با افزایش میزان بذر، عملکرد به طور معنی‌داری افزایش و توان رقابتی علف هرز با گندم کاهش یافت به گونه‌ای که کمترین وزن خشک علف ‌های هرز در میزان 315 کیلوگرم بذر در هکتار بدست آمد. به ازای افزایش هر کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار، وزن خشک علف ‌های هرز به میزان 57/0 گرم در متر مربع افزایش یافت. در سطوح مختلف نیتروژن، عملکرد دانه گندم در واحد سطح با وزن خشک علف ‌های هرز در واحد سطح رابطه خطی و منفی‌ داشت. بطور کلی به نظر می‌رسد افزایش میزان بذر مصرفی در مقایسه با نیتروژن به عنوان یک راهکار زراعی نقش مهم‌تری در جبران خسارت علف‌های‌هرز بر عملکرد دانه داشته باشد. لذا برای دستیابی به عملکرد بهینه در شرایط حضور علف هرز، مصرف 270 کیلوگرم بذر و 150 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Nitrogen, Seeding Rate and Weed Interference on Growth and Yield of Wheat (Shiraz Cultivar)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ayoub Niknam Haghighi 1
  • Seyed Abdolreza Kazemeini 2
  • Hossein Ghadiri 2
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen, plant density and weeds on growth and yield of wheat cv. Shiraz, an experiment was conducted during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 growing seasons at Agricultural College of Shiraz University. The experimental design was split-split plot with main plots arranged as an RCBD with three replications. Treatments included weed and weed free as main factor, three nitrogen levels (50,100,150 kg ha-1) as sub factor and seeding rate (180, 225, 270 and 315 kg ha-1) as sub factor. Wheat growth and yield as well as its components (1000-grain weight, grain number per spike and ear number m-2) were affected by weeds so that grain yield was significantly reduced by 34.23%. With increasing level of nitrogen (from 50 to 150 kg/ha), wheat grain yield (3840 Vs 4980 kg/ha)was significantly increased by 29/83%; however weed dry weight was also increased in weedy plots indicating that additional nitrogen cannot compensate for the effect of weed competition. Increasing seeding rate recorded significantly higher yield and yield components than control and a simultaneous reduction in weed competition with the lowest weed dry weight was achieved at 315 kg ha-1 seeding rate. A rise of nitrogen rate increased (0.57 gr m-2) weed dry weight. There was a negative  and significant correlation between seed yield and weed dry weight, so that under different nitrogen levels, increasing weed dry weight decreased seed yield. Generally, it appears that compared to increased rate of nitrogen, higher seeding rate is a more effective strategy to compensate for yield losses caused by weeds. To achieve optimal wheat yield, application of 270 kg wheat seed and 150 kg nitrogen ha-1 is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Wheat yield components
  • plant density
  • Competition

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