مدلسازی برهمکنش کود نیتروژن و علف‌کش بر علف‌‌های‌‌هرز تاتوره (Datura stramonium L.) و تاج‌خروس ریشه قرمز (Amaranthus retroflexus L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد

2 محقق

چکیده

به منظور انتخاب مدل ترکیبی مناسب در توصیف ارتباط بین واکنش به دز علف‌کش نیکوسولفورون و سطوح کودی نیتروژن در پیش‌بینی کنترل علف‌های‌هرز تاتوره و تاج‌خروس ریشه‌قرمز، آزمایشی در قالب طرح فاکتوریل بر پایه کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران (کرج) در سال 1388 انجام شد. نیتروژن در چهار سطح (0، 90، 180 و 360 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود اوره) و  علف‌کش نیکوسولفورون در پنج سطح (0، 5/0، 1، 5/1 و 2 لیتر در هکتار) بکار برده شدند. آنالیز واریانس حاکی از تفاوت معنی‌دار تیمارهای کود، علف‌کش و اثرات متقابل بین کود و علف‌کش بر روی زیست توده هر دو علف‌هرز بود. منحنی استاندارد واکنش به دز بعنوان مدل پایه در نظر گرفته شد و سپس کارآیی این مدل در تعیین زیست توده علف‌هرز با کاربرد سطوح علف‌کش در هر سطح کودی بررسی گردید تا صحت این انتخاب تأیید گردد. برای تعیین ارتباط هر یک از پارامترهای مدل پایه با سطوح کودی، مدل‌های ممکن مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و مدل‌های مناسب بعنوان زیر مدل در مدل پایه قرار داده شدند تا در نهایت، مدل ترکیبی نهایی ارائه گردید. زیست توده این دو علف‌هرز در تیمار بدون علف‌کش با افزایش کود، رفتار متفاوتی از خود نشان داد. روند این تغییرات در سطوح مختلف کودی با مدل‌های خطی و کوآدراتیک، بترتیب در مورد تاج‌خروس و تاتوره توصیف شده بود. افزایش نیتروژن در تاتوره، واکنش به دز علف‌کش را تغییری نداد، زیرا پارامترهای شیب منحنی و دز مورد نیاز برای 50% کاهش زیست توده علف‌هرز تاتوره رفتار مشخصی با افزایش کود نیتروژن از خود نشان نداده و لذا منحنی استاندارد واکنش به دز با این دو پارامتر ثابت، بهترین توصیف‌ زیست توده تاتوره زمانیکه تحت تأثیر کود و علف‌کش قرار می‌گیرند، می‌باشد. ولی منحنی استاندارد واکنش به دز تاج‌خروس با جایگذاری پارامترهای شیب منحنی و دز مورد نیاز برای 50% کاهش زیست توده این علف‌هرز، بترتیب با مدل نمایی و خطی تصحیح شده بود. مدل‌های نهایی ارائه شده قادر به پیش‌بینی زیست توده این دو علف‌هرز زمانیکه تحت تأثیر دزهای علف‌کش و کود نیتروژن قرار دارند، می‌باشند

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Modelling Interactions between Nitrogen Fertilizer and Herbicide in Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.) and Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • rahmat abbasi 1
  • hassan alizadeh 2
  • daryoush mazaheri 2
  • hamid rahimian mashadi 2
  • mohammad baghestani 2
چکیده [English]

In order to select appropriate combined model to describe the relationship between herbicide dose–response and nitrogen fertilizer levels in predicting jimsonweed and redroot pigweed control a experiment was laid out in a factorial design based on complete randomized design (CRD) with three replicates in research greenhouses of Agriculture Campus of Tehran University, Karaj in 2009. The four levels of nitrogen (0, 90, 180 and 360 kg ha-1 urea fertilizer) and five levels of Nicosulfuron (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 L.ha-1) were applied. Analysis of variance demonstrated the there were significant effects of fertilizer and herbicide treatment and interaction between herbicide and nitrogen on both of weed biomass.‌ The standard dose–response curve was considered for base model. Then efficiency of this model assesses to weed biomass determination at each nitrogen level that accuracy of this model confirms. For determination of relation each of parameters of base model with fertilizer levels, possible models were considered and appropriate models as sub-model were settled at base model, ultimately final combined model presented. The biomass of both weeds at no-herbicide treatment (Wo) showed a different behavior with increasing nitrogen. Trend of these changes at nitrogen levels was well described by the linear and quadratic models for redroot pigweed and jimsonweed, respectively. Increasing nitrogen didn’t change herbicide dose-response of jimsonweed, because steepness of the curve (β) and the effective dose required to reduce weed biomass by 50% (ED50) parameters of this weed not showed a clear behavior with increasing nitrogen. Therefore standard dose–response curve with constant β and ED50 parameters was best describing of jimsonweed biomass as affected by both the herbicide dose and nitrogen level. But standard dose–response curve of redroot pigweed was modified by replacing the parameter β and ED50 with the exponential and linear curves, respectively. The final presented models can be used to predict weed control by an herbicide as affected by both the herbicide dose and nitrogen level.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Modelling
  • Dose-response
  • Nicosulfuron herbicide
  • Nitrogen fertilizer
  • Jimsonweed
  • and Redroot pigweed
Baghestani, M. A., Zand, E., Soufizadeh, S., Eskandari, A., Pourazar, R., Veysi, M., and Nassirrzadehh, N. 2007. Efficacy evaluation of some dual purpose herbicide to control weeds in mays (Zea mays L.). Crop Prot. 26: 939–942.

Blackshaw, R. E., O’Donovan, J.T., Harker, K.N., Clayton, G.W., and Stougaard, R.N. 2006. Reduced herbicide doses in field crops: a review. Weed Biol. Manag. 6: 10–17.

Brain, P., Wilson, B. J., Wright, K. J., Seavers, G. P. and Caseley, J. C. 1999. Modelling the effect of crop and weed on herbicide efficacy in wheat. Weed Res. 39: 21–35. 

Burnham, K.P., and D.R. Anderson. 2002. Model Selection and Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretical Approach. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Cathcart, R. J., Chandler, K., and Swanton, C. J. 2004. Fertilizer nitrogen rate and the response of weeds to herbicides. Weed Sci. 52: 291–296.

Christensen, S. 1994. Crop:weed competition and herbicide performance in cereal species and varieties. Weed Res. 34: 29–36.

Costea, M., Weaver, S. E. and Tardif, J.F., 2003. The biology of Canadian weeds. 130. Amaranthus retroflexusL., A. powellii S.Watson and A. hybridus L. Canadian J. of  Plant Sci.

DuPunt Agricultural Products (Basic manufacturer), 1995. Toxicology Network: Nicosulfuron. Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of Cornell University, Michigan State, University, Oregon State University, and University of California at Davis the Extension, www.pmep.com

Fitt, G. P. 1989. The ecology of heliothis species in relation to agroecosystems. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 34: 17–52.

Frederick, J. R. and Camberato, J.J. 1995. Water and nitrogen effects on winter wheat in the south-eastern coastal plain. II. Physiological responses. Agron. J. 87: 527– 533.

Griffiths, G. P. 1968. The effect of nitrogenous fertilizer upon the selective use of herbicides as an aid to influencing sward composition. In: Proceedings of the 1968 Ninth British Weed Control Conference. London, UK. 461–465.

Hearn, A. B. and Fitt, G. P. 1992. Cotton cropping systems. Page 85-142. In C. J. Pearson, ed. Ecosystems of the world. 18: Field Crop Ecosystems. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Heemst, H. D. 1985. The influence of weed competition on crop yield. Agricultural systems. 18: 81–93.

Holloway, P.J., D. Bowdler, and J.C. Caseley. 1980. Effect of environment on the physicochemical properties of couch grass (Agropyron repens). In: Long Ashton Report 1979, (ed. Abbot, A.J.), 100–102. LongAshton Research Station, Bristol,UK.

Holm, L., Doll, J., Holm, E., Pancho, J. and Herberger J. 1996. World weeds, Natural histories and Distribution. John wiley & sons, Ins.

Jornsgard, B., Rasmussen, K., Hill, J. and Christiansen, J.L. 1996. Influence of nitrogen on competition between cereals and their natural weed population. Weed Res. 36: 461–470.

Kim, D.S., Marshall, E. J. P., Caseley, J. C., and Brain, P. 2006. Modelling interactions between herbicide and nitrogen in terms of weed response. Weed Res. 46: 490–501.

Lemerle, D., Verbeek, B., and Coombes, N. E. 1996. Interaction between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and diclofop to reduce the cost of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) control. Weed Sci. 44: 634–639.

Lindquist, J. L., Barker, D. C., Knezevic, S.Z., Martin, A. R., and Walters, D.T. 2007. Comparative nitrogen uptake and distribution in corn and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti).  Weed Sci. 55: 102–110.

Lutman, P. J. W., Sagar, G. R., Marshall, C. and Headford, D.W. R. 1974. The influence of nutrient status on paraquat activity. Weed Res. 14: 355–363.

McWhorter, C.G. 1971. Control of johnsongrass ecotypes. Weed Sci. 19: 229–239.

Nelder, J. A. 1966. Inverse polynomials, a useful group of multifactor response functions. Biometrics. 22: 128–141.

Nojavan, M. 2001. Principles of weed control. Urmia University Publisher, Urmia, Iran. 340 pp. (In Persian).

Pfeiffer, R. K. and Holmes, H. M. 1961. A study of the competition between barley and oats as influenced by barley seed rate, nitrogen level and barban treatment. Weed Res. 1: 5–18.

Richards, M. C. 1993. The effects of agronomic factors on competition between cereals and weeds: the implications in integrated crop production. In: Proceedings 1993 Brighton Crop Protection Conference-Weeds, Brighton, UK. 991–996.

Rooney, J. M., Clarkson, D. T., Highett, M., Hoar, J. J. and Purves, J.V. 1990. Growth of Galium aparine L. (cleavers) and competition with Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) for N. In: Proceedings of EWRS Symposium 1990: Integrated weed management in cereals. Helsinki, Finland. 271–280.

Salonen, J. 1992. Efficacy of reduced herbicide doses in spring cereals of different competitive ability. Weed Res. 32: 483–491.

Streibig, J. C. 1980. Models for curve fitting herbicide dose response data. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica. 30: 59–64.

Tollenaar, M., Nissanka, S. P., Aguilera, A., Weise, S. F., and Swanton, C. J. 1994. Effect of weed interference and soil nitrogen on four corn hybrids. Agron. J. 86: 596–601.

Weaver, S. E., Warwick, S. I. 1984. The biology of Canadian weeds. 64. Datura stramonium L. Canadian J. of  Plant Sci.

Wolf, D. E., Vermillion, G., Wallace, A. and Ahlgren, G.H. 1950. Effects of 2,4-D on carbohydrate and nutrient-element content, and on rapidity of kill of soybean plants growing at different nitrogen levels. Botanical Gazette. 112: 188–197.

Wright, K. J. and Wilson, B. J. 1992. Effects of nitrogen on competition and seed production of Avena fatua and Galium aparine in winter wheat. Aspects of Applied Biology. 30: 1051–1058.

Wright, K. J., Seavers, G. P., Peters, N.C.B. and Marshall, M.A. 1999. Influence of soil moisture on the competitive ability and seed dormancy of Sinapis arvensis in spring wheat. Weed Res. 39: 309–318.

Zareh, A. 2009. Evaluation of the integrated weed management systems in Maize (Zea mays). M.Sc. dissertation, University of Tehran, Iran (In Persian with English Abstract).