بررسی تغییر فلور علف‌های‌هرز مزارع گندم آبی (Triticum aestivum) استان تهران طی یک دوره ده ساله (1384 تا 1394)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد- مشهد

3 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات- دانشکده کشاورزی- دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد - مشهد

4 بخش علف های هرز موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی کشور

چکیده

با هدف ارزیابی تغییرات فلور جوامع علف‌های‌هرز مزارع گندم آبی استان تهران طی یک دهه گذشته، مطالعه‌ای در 52 مزرعه واقع در هفت شهرستان در سال 1394صورت گرفت. فراوانی، یکنواختی، تراکم و شاخص غالبیت گونه­ها محاسبه شد و با شاخص‌های سال ­1384 مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت. در ارزیابی سال 1394، 66 گونه علف­هرز متعلق به 24 خانواده گیاهی شناسایی شد که 55 گونه از آن‌ها دولپه­ای و سایر گونه‎‌ها تک لپه­ای بودند؛ 10 گونه مشاهده شده در سال 1384، در ارزیابی سال 1394 از فلور مزارع حذف شده بودند و 15 گونه­ جدید متعلق به 11 خانواده گیاهی شناسایی شدند. چهار خانواده تاج­خروس (Amaranthaceae)، خواجه­باشی (Dipsacaceae)، بارهنگ (Plantaginaceae) و سیب­زمینی (Solanaceae) برای اولین­بار در مزارع گندم استان دیده شدند. خانواده‌های شب­بو (Brassicaceae)، گندمیان (Poaceae) و کاسنی (Asteraceae) جزء خانواده‌های غالببودند. گونه­های دو لپه­ای، خاکشیر معمولی (Descurania Sophia)، علف هفت­بند (Polygonum aviculare)، پیچک صحرایی (Convolvulus arvensis) و شاهتره (Fumaria vaillantii)، به ترتیب با شاخص غالبیت 94/117، 82/97، 09/81 و 11/46 و گونه­های تک­لپه­ای یولاف­ زمستانه (Avena ludoviciana)، جودره (Hordeum spontaneum)، چچم (Lolium rigidum) و چاودار (Secale cereal)، به ترتیب با شاخص غالبیت 59/86، 94/50، 64/27 و 41/15، بیشترین شاخص غالبیت را داشتند. تفاوت شاخص غالبیت اکثریت گونه­­ها منفی بود­. نتایج ارزیابی نشان‌دهندهکاهش غالبیت اکثر علف‌های‌هرز و بهبود کنترل آن‌ها بود؛ هرچند در تعداد ک‌می‌از علف‌های‌هرز از قبیل خردل وحشی و بی تی راخ، افزایش شاخص غالبیت مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating Weed Flora Changes in Irrigated Wheat) Triticum aestivum( Fields of Tehran Province in a Decade: 2005 to 2015

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Khanjani 1
  • mehdi rastgoo 2
  • Ebrahim Izadi darbandi 3
  • Mehdi Minbashi 4
1 Agronomy depatmeat, Faculty of Agricultural Fredowsi University of Mashhad,Iran
2 Faculty of Agricultural Fredowsi University of Mashhad ‎Mashhad, Iran
3 Faculty of Agricultural Fredowsi University of Mashhad ‎Mashhad, Iran
4 Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection
چکیده [English]

Abstract
A study was conducted to assess the weed flora changes in the irrigated wheat fields during the last decade in 52 fields located in seven cities at Tehran province in 2015. The frequency, Unifromaty and dominance index of species were calculated and they were compared with the mentioned indices from 2005. In 2015, 66 species of weedsfrom 26 families were identified, of which, 55 species were broad-leaf and the others were grasss. 10 species that had been observed in 2005 had been omitted from the fields and 15 new species from 11 families were identified. Amaranthaceae, Dipsacaceae, Plantaginaceae, and Solanaceae were the four families that were for the first times observed in the fields of the province for the first times. Brassicaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae families were dominant families in the fields. The broadleaf species of flixweed, knotweed, bindweed and fumitory with dominance indices of 117/94, 97/82, 81/09 and 46/11 and the grasss of wild oat,wild barley,annual ryegrassferalrye with dominance indices of 86/59, 50/94, 27/64 and 15/41 had the greatest dominance indices respectively. The differences of dominance index of the most species were negative. The results of study indicated the dominance reduction of the most weeds and their control improvementy although in a few number of weeds such as wild mustard and catchweed, an increase in the dominance index was observed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Density
  • Dominance index
  • Frequency
  • Flora Change and Unifromaty
 
 

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