تغییر فلور علف‌های‌هرز مزارع گندم آبی کرمانشاه پس از یک دهه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات کرمانشاه

2 دانشگاه تهران

3 موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی

چکیده

مطالعه‌ای جهت ارزیابی تغییرات فلور جوامع علف‌های‌هرز مزارع گندم آبی استان کرمانشاه، در سال‌های 1381 و 1391 صورت گرفت. 85 مزرعه در 11 شهرستان ارزیابی شد. در سال 1391، فراوانی، تراکم و شاخص غالبیت گونه‌ها، محاسبه شد و سپس با شاخص‌های سال 1381 مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت. نتایج در سال 1391 نشان داد، در مزارع گندم آبی استان کرمانشاه 112 گونه علف‌هرز وجود دارد که از این میان 18 گونه باریک برگ و 94 گونه پهن برگ می‌باشند.گونه‌های پیچک صحرایی (Convolvulus arvensis)، یولاف وحشی زمستانه (Avena ludoviciana)، خردل وحشی (Sinapis arvensis) و جودره (Hordeum spontaneum) بیشترین شاخص غالبیت را در سال 1381 داشتند. این گونه‌ها در سال 1391 نه تنها غالب بودند بلکه به ترتیب 3/128، 14/29، 46/51، 31/36 درصد نسبت به سال 1381 افزایش در شاخص غالبیت نشان دادند. در حالی که گونه‌های بی تی راخ (Galium tricornutum)، شیرین بیان (Glycyrrhiza glabra) و دانه قناری مدیترانه‌ای (Phalaris brachytsachys) به ترتیب 45/10، 27/52 و 16/27 درصد نسبت به سال 1381 کاهش در شاخص غالبیت را نشان دادند. در سال 1391 نسبت به ده سال پیش، 44 گونه علف‌هرز جدید درکوادرات‌های درون مزرعه شناسایی شد که در سال 1381 مشاهده نشده بودند. علاوه برآن در خارج از کوادرات و حاشیه داخلی مزرعه 48 گونه علف‌هرز جدید شناسایی گردید. تنوع شانون بین سال‌های 1381 و 1391 در شهرستان‌های کرمانشاه و کنگاور تفاوت معنی دار آماری داشت. شاخص غالبیت سیمپسون در سال 1391 حاکی از افزایش یکنواختی گونه‌ای در شهرستان کرمانشاه بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Weed Flora Change in Irrigated Wheat Fields of Kermanshah after a Decade

نویسندگان [English]

  • mozhghan vaisi 1
  • Hamid Rahimian 2
  • Hassan Alizadeh 2
  • mehdi meanbashi 3
  • mostafa oviesi 2
چکیده [English]

A survey was carried out in irrigated wheat fields to assess the flora changes in the weed communities structures and flora change in Kermanshah province in 2002 and 2012. 85 fields from 11 counties were evaluated. Some population indices such as plant species frequency, density and species dominance were calculated for 2012 and were compared to the values for 2002. Results showed that in 2012, 112 weed species were distributed throughout wheat fields consisting of 18 grass weed species and 94 broadleaves. Convolvulus arvensis, Avena ludoviciana, Sinapis arvensis and Hordeum spontaneum were dominant weed species in 2002. In 2012, the respective species not only were found dominant but also showed 128.3, 29.14, 51.46 and 36.31 percent increase in dominance index, respectively. In contrast, the weed species Galium tricornutum, Glycyrrhizia glabra, and Phalaris brachystachys, respectively showed 10.45, 52.27, and 27.16 percent decrease in dominance index compared to values calculated for 2002. Forty four new weed species were identified in 2012 that were not observed in 2002. In addition, our observations from the areas out of random quadrates sampling resulted in identifying forty eight new weed species. Shannon diversity index showed no difference from 2002 to 2012 for Kermanshah and Kangavar. Simpson dominance index indicated an increase in weed species evenness in Kermanshah county in 2012. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Weed flora shift
  • Wheat fields
  • shannon diversity
  • Abundance Index
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