مطالعه روند رشد و عملکرد کشت مخلوط ذرت و سویا در رقابت همزمان با دو علف هرز تاج خروس و تاتوره

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشگاه

2 محقق

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر کشت مخلوط بر عملکرد و شاخص‌های رشد ذرت و سویا در رقابت با علف های هرز تاج خروس و تاتوره، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در سال 1386 انجام شد. عوامل مورد بررسی عبارت بودند از: 5 نسبت اختلاط دو گیاه زراعی ذرت و سویا شامل: 0 % سویا: 100 % ذرت،25 % سویا: 75 % ذرت، 50 % سویا: 50 % ذرت، 75 % سویا: 25 % ذرت،100 % سویا: 0 % ذرت،و 4 سطح آلودگی علف‌هرز تاج خروس و تاتوره شامل: عاری از علف هرز، آلوده به تاج‌خروس در تمام فصل، آلوده به تاتوره در تمام فصل  و آلودگی توام تاج خروس و تاتوره در طول فصل به نسبت 50:50. تراکم علف‌های هرز کاشته شده در همه کرتها 15 بوته در هر متر از طول ردیف بود. نتایج نشان داد که بالاترین میزان شاخص سطح برگ، تجمع ماده خشک و سرعت رشد محصول ذرت در نسبت 25 :‌75 (سویا: ذرت) مشاهده شد، همچنین بالاترین نسبت برابری زمین(33/1) و بیشترین میزان عملکرد ذرت (10875 کیلوگرم در هکتار) نیز در این نسبت بدست آمد، اما با کاهش نسبت ذرت در مخلوط این صفات کاهش یافتند. رقابت همزمان دو گونه علف هرز  در تمام سطوح کشت مخلوط در مقایسه با رقابت تک گونه‌ای تاج‌خروس یا تاتوره باعث کاهش بیشتر شاخص‌های رشد و در نتیجه کاهش بیشتر عملکرد دانه در ذرت شد. برای سویا بالاترین شاخص سطح برگ، تجمع ماده خشک، سرعت رشد محصول و همچنین بیشترین عملکرد دانه (3/5898 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تک‌کشتی و بدون حضور علف هرز بدست آمد. حصول نسبت برابری زمین بالاتر از یک درتمام تیمارهای واجد ذرت و سویا حتی در شرایط رقابت با علف‌های هرز حاکی از سودمندی کشت مخلوط و مناسب بودن آن به عنوان یک راهبرد غیر شیمیایی در مدیریت علف‌های هرز می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Yield and Growth Indices of Corn/Soybean Intercrop under Simultaneous Competition of Redroot Pigweed and Jimsonweed

نویسندگان [English]

  • faezeh zaefarian 1
  • majid aghaalikhan 1
  • hamid rahimian mashadi 2
  • eskandar zand 2
  • mohammad rezvani 1
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of corn/soybean intercrop on their yield and growth indices under competition with redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), a field study was carried out in Karaj during 2007 growing season. Treatments were arranged in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks with three replications. Experimental factors were five different mixing ratios of corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) including: 100: 0 (corn/soybean), 75: 25, 50: 50, 25:75 and 0: 100 with four levels of weed infestations: weed free, infestation to redroot pigweed, infestation to jimsonweed and co-occurrence of both weeds. Weed density was 15 plants per meter of row. Results showed that corn leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and crop growth rate was maximum in 75:25 (corn: soybean) ratio. The highest land equivalent ratio (1.33) and the most amount of corn yield (10875 kg ha-1) was also observed in this ratio, but decreased as the proportion of corn was decreased in mixture. The maximum corn yield loss occurred from multiple weed competition treatments. LAI, CGR, dry matter accumulation and grain yield (5898.3 kg ha-1) were maximum for soybean pure stand but showed a decreasing trend with decreasing soybean ratio. Appearance of high LER in all intercropped plots even in weed infested treatments indicate to profitability of intercropping as a non-chemical strategy for weed management.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • multiple cropping
  • mixing ratios
  • Growth analysis
  • Competition
  • non-chemical weed management
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