تأثیر زمان و مقدار کاربرد علف کش سولفوسولفورون بر کنترل علف پشمکی ژاپنی (.Bromus japonicus Thunb) در ارقام مختلف گندم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زاعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 گروه زراعت، دانشگاه زابل

4 استاد موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی کشور

چکیده

علف­پشمکی ژاپنی (Bromus japonicus Thunb.) مهم­ترین علف‌هرز باریک­برگ یک­ساله زمستانه در مزارع گندم استان سیستان و بلوچستان به شمار می­رود. آزمایش مزرعه­ای در سال­های 1393 و 1394 با هدف بررسی اثرات زمان و مقدار مصرف علف‌کش سولفوسولفورون در کنترل علف‌هرز علف­پشمکی در ارقام مختلف گندم در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی زهک، زابل انجام شد. سه رقم گندم (هیرمند، کلک­افغانی، سیستان)، سه مرحله کاربرد علف‌کش بر اساس فنولوژی علف‌هرز (3-2 برگی، 5-4 برگی، پنجه­زنی) و چهار مقدار مصرف (شاهد بدون علف‌کش، 17، 22، 27 گرم ماده تجاری آپیروس در هکتار)، به صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. در همه ارقام، کاربرد علف‌کش سولفوسولفورون در مرحله 5-4 برگی و پنجه­زنی علف‌هرز به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین کارایی را بر کنترل علف­پشمکی از خود نشان داد. در تیمار کاربرد در مرحله پنجه­زنی علف­پشمکی در رقم هیرمند، مقدار علف‌کش مورد نیاز برای کاهش تراکم علف­پشمکی به نصف بیشینه حتی از مقدار توصیه شده هم بالاتر رفت (3/28= ). در همه ارقام و مراحل کاربرد ، بین مقدار مصرفی 22 و 27 گرم ماده تجاری در هکتار اختلاف معنی­داری مشاهده نگردید. نرخ افزایش عملکرد دانه به ازای کاهش در تراکم علف­پشمکی برای رقم هیرمند در بالاترین (31/0=b) و برای رقم کلک­افغانی کمترین (14/0=b) مقدار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of time and rate of sulfosulfuron application on Bromus japonicus Thunb. control in different wheat cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mansoor Sarani 1
  • Ali Ghanbari 2
  • Mohammad Galavi 3
  • Ebrahim Izadi Darbandi 2
  • Mohammad Ali Baghestani Meybodi 4
1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Department of Agronomy, University of Zabol
4 Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection
چکیده [English]

Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thumb.) is the most important winter annual grass weed in the wheat fields of Sistan & Baloochestan province. During 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 growing season at Zahak Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station, Zabol, field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of rate and time of sulfosulforoun application in order to control Japanese brome in different wheat cultivars. Three wheat cultivars (Hirmand, Kalak Afghani, Sistan), three stages of herbicide application (2-3 leaves, 4-5 leaves, tillering of B. japonicus) and four herbicide doses (control, 17, 22, 22 gr. ha-1) of the commercial form of Apirus 75% were arranged in a factorial experiment under a randomized completed blocks design.Japanese brome density and dry weight were measured 30 days after final herbicide application. We also evaluated biological and grain yields of wheat at harvest. In all cultivars, herbicide application at 4-5 leaves and tillering of Japanese bromeshowed the highest and lowest weed density and dry weight respectively. Based on a logistic model fitted to density data of Japanese brome, the estimated dose to 50% loss in Hirmand at tillering stage was more than labeled-recommendation dose of sulfosulforoun ( =28.3). The grain yield values in Hirmand and Kalak Afghani cultivars showed the highest and lowest in response to. Japanese bromedensity, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competitive ability
  • Density
  • integrated weed management
  • logistic model
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دوره 13، شماره 1
بهار و تابستان 1396
صفحه 29-44