واکنش ژنوتیپ‌های بومی و اصلاح‌شده برنج به رقابت با علف‌های هرز در سیستم کشت مستقیم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه گیلان

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

3 عضو هیات علمی- موسسه تحقیقات برنج رشت

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی توان رقابتی ژنوتیپ‌های برنج با علف‌های‌هرز در سیستم کشت مستقیم و تعیین صفات مرتبط با آن، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 96-95 در ﻣﺆسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور واقع در شهرستان رشت انجام گرفت. آزمایش به صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. کرت­های اصلی شامل دو سطح مدیریت علف‌هرز (رقابت کامل تحت شرایط جامعه طبیعی علف‌های‌هرز و عاری از علف­هرز) و کرت­های فرعی شامل 10 ژنوتیپ برنج (هاشمی، آبجی‌بوجی، تازه‌حسنی، گیلانه، شیرودی، صالح، RI18430-1، RI18430-60، RI18430-72 و RI18430-77) بودند. نتایج نشان­دهنده تفاوت ژنوتیپ‌ها از نظر توانایی رقابت با علف‌های‌هرز بود. تحت شرایط عاری از علف‌های‌هرز، میزان عملکرد دانه از 5/3293 در رقم صالح تا 1/6796 کیلوگرم در هکتار در رقم شیرودی متغیر بود. تحت شرایط رقابت کامل علف‌های‌هرز نیز عملکرد دانه از 6/260 در لاین  RI18430-72تا 2/1291 کیلوگرم در هکتار در رقم هاشمی ثبت شد. تغییرات زیست­توده علف‌های‌هرز در مرحله گلدهی از 53/153 تا 63/212 گرم در متر­مربع بود که بالاترین و پایین‌ترین میزان آن به‌ترتیب در رقم آبجی‌بوجی و شیرودی مشاهده شد. متوسط افت نسبی عملکرد به واسطه رقابت با علف‌های‌هرز از 55/73 تا 1/94 درصد در میان ژنوتیپ­های مختلف، متغیر بود. نتایج همچنین نشان­دهنده وجود همبستگی مثبت معنی­دار میان توانایی رقابتی و عملکرد دانه بود. ارقام هاشمی، شیرودی و لاین RI18430-60 با دارا بودن بالاترین توانایی رقابتی و عملکرد دانه (مبنای انتخاب مستقیم تحت شرایط رقابت کامل) می­توانند در برنامه­های مدیریت تلفیقی علف‌های‌هرز به منظور کاهش مصرف علف‌کش‌ها به کار روند. بر مبنای نتایج به دست­آمده، رشد اولیه (بنیه)، شاخص سطح برگ، زیست­توده و ارتفاع بوته، صفاتی هستند که همبستگی مثبت معنی داری با توان رقابتی داشته و از این رو می­توانند به عنوان معیاری جهت تشخیص و انتخاب غیر­مستقیم ارقام دارای توان رقابتی بالا مورد استفاده قرار گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of Landrace and Improved Genotypes of Rice to Weed Competition in Direct- Seeded System

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Rajabian 1
  • Jafar Asghari 2
  • Mohammad Reza Ehteshami 2
  • Bijan Yaghoubi 3
1 Agronomy and Plant Breeding Department, University of Guilan
2 Agronomy and Plant Breeding Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan
3 Department of Plant Protection, Rice Research Institute of Iran, Rasht
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the competitive ability of rice genotypes against weeds in direct seeding system and determination the traits that may confer such attributes, a field experiment was conducted at the Rice Research Institute of Iran in Rasht during 2016-17 cropping season. The experiment was laid out in a split plot based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The treatments included two levels of weed management (weedy (under natural weed flora) and weed-free) as the main plots, and ten rice genotypes (Hashemi, Abjiboji, Tazeh Hasani, Gilaneh, Shiroodi, Saleh, RI18430-1, RI18430-60, RI18430-72, RI18430-77) as subplots. The results showed genotypic differences in competitive ability against weeds. Under weed- free conditions, grain yield varied from 3293.5 in Saleh to 6796.1 kg.ha-1 in Shiroodi. Under weedy conditions, grain yield was also registered from 260.6 in breeding line RI18430-72 to 1291.2 kg.ha-1 in Hashemi. The highest and lowest amounts of weed biomass at flowering were also observed in Abjiboji and shiroodi, respectively. Average yield loss due to weed competition ranged from 73.55 to 94.1% in different rice genotypes. The results also indicated a positive significant correlation between competitive ability and grain yield, thus Hashemi, Shiroodi and the breeding line RI18430-60 had the highest competitive ability against weeds and also grain yield (the basis for direct selection under weedy condition). This method can be applied in integrated weed management programs to reduce herbicide use. The study revealed that early growth (vigor), leaf area index, crop biomass and height had significant positive correlation with competitive ability and hence, can be used as useful indirect selection criteria of genotypes with high competitive ability.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competitive ability
  • indirect selection
  • integrated weed management
  • relative yield loss
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