اثر چهار گونه گیاه پوششی بر کنترل و تغییرات جمعیت علف‌های‌هرز در منطقه کرج

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 محمد رضا مجیدی دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

3 عضو هیئت علمی مؤسسه تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور،سازمان تحقیقات،آموزش وترویج کشاورزی،تهران،ایران

4 دانشیار پژوهشکده میوه‌های سردسیری،موسسه تحقیقات باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

این آزمایش در سال زراعی 1395-1394 درکرج، به منظور بررسی تأثیر گیاهان پوششی در کنترل علف‌های‌هرز و استفاده از علف‌کش برای استقرار گیاهان پوششی به‌صورت کرت­های خردشده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. عامل اصلی، گیاهان پوششی شامل علف­بره (Festuca ovina)، لرزانک­قرمز (Festuca rubra)، علف­گندمی­بیابانی (Agropyron desertorum)، علف پشمکی (Bromus tomentellus) و شاهد (بدون گیاه پوششی و آلوده به علف هرز) و عامل فرعی، علف‌کش برمایسیدام‌آ (EC 40) در چهار سطح صفر، 300، 450 و 600 گرم در هکتار بود. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، گیاهان پوششی علف پشمکی و علف­بره به ترتیب با 8 و 5 کیلوگرم بر مترمربع، بیشترین وزن خشک را دارا بودند. همین گیاهان، بیشترین تاثیر کاهشی را بر تراکم علف‌های‌هرز (به ترتیب برابر 86% و 67%) و وزن خشک علف‌های‌هرز (به ترتیب برابر 81% و 71%) داشتند. اثر متقابل گیاه پوششی و علف‌کش روی وزن خشک علف‌های‌هرز معنی­دار گردید. علف‌های‌هرز غالب در آزمایش شامل قدومه (Alyssum desertorum)، هفت‌بند (Polygonum aviculare) و خاکشیر ایرانی (Descurainia sophia) بودند که میانگین کاهش وزن خشک آنها در اثر اعمال تیمار نسبت به شاهد، به ترتیب 71%، 89% و 83% بود. بیشترین مقدار کاهش در وزن خشک علف‌های‌هرز غالب درگیاه پوششی علف­پشمکی یادداشت شد. بیشترین کاهش تنوع علف‌های‌هرز بر اساس شاخص شانون وینر در بین تیمارهای گیاهان پوششی نسبت به شاهد (H=1.5) در گیاهان پوششی علف­پشمکی (6/0) و علف­بره (73/0) مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Four Cover Crop Species on Weed Control and Population Changes in Karaj Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohammad reza majidi 1
  • bahram mirshekari 2
  • batoul samedani 3
  • hassan hajinajari 4
  • farhad frahvash 2
1 Ph.D. student Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
2 Associate Prof. Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz
3 Associate Prof. Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection,agricultural research education and extension organization, Tehran
4 - Research Associate Professor. Plant Biology and Crop Productivity. Temperate and Cold Fruits Research Institute (TCFRI). Horticulture Science Res. Institute.
چکیده [English]

This experiment was conducted during 2015-2016 in Karaj, Iran to investigate the effect of cover crops on weed control and the use of herbicide on establishment of cover crops as a split-plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Main factors were Festuca ovina, Festuca rubra, Agropyron desertorum, Bromus tomentellus and control (no cover crops, weedy) and sub factor was Bromoxynil + MCPA (Bromicide M.A EC.40) herbicide in four levels: 0, 300, 450 and 600 gha-1. Based on the findings, B.tomentellus and F. ovina species had the highest cover crop dry mater (8 and 5 kg/ m2 respectively). B. tomentellus and F. ovina species had the highest reduction in weed densities (86% and 67%, respectively) and dry weights (81% and 71%respectively) compared to the control. The interaction between cover crops and herbicide on total dry weight of weeds was significant. The most common weeds of the experiment were Alyssum desertorum, Descurainia Sophia and Polygonum aviculare. The mean dry weight reduction of dominant weeds by cover crops compared to control for D. sophia, A. desertorum and P. aviculare were 83%, 71% and 89%, respectively. The highest dry weight loss of dominant weeds was belonged to B.tomentellus and F. ovina treatments. Based on the Shannon Wiener index, the highest reductions of diversity compared to the control (1.5) were observed for B.tomentellus (0.6) and F. ovina (0.73).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cover crop
  • Dry weight
  • herbicide
  • diversity
 
 

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