اثر نور، دما و پوسته بذر بر جوانه‌زنی جمعیت ‌های مختلف یولاف وحشی زمستانه (Avena ludoviciana)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری علوم علفهای هرز دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری علوم علفهای هرز دانشگاه تهران

3 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

یولاف وحشی زمستانه، به دلیل دارا بودن خواب در بذرهای خود، قادر است برای مدت‌های طولانی در خاک بماند. مطالعه اثر عوامل مختلف بر رفتار جوانه‌زنی بذر این علف‌هرز، منجر به تنظیم برنامه صحیح کنترل خواهد شد. به منظور بررسی نحوۀ پاسخ بذرهای یولاف‌وحشی زمستانه، دو آزمایش (شرایط نوری و تاریکی) بصورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل دما (3، 5، 10، 15 و دمای متناوب 10 درجه سانتی‌گراد در روز و 5 درجه سانتی‌گراد در شب)، وجود یا عدم وجود پوسته در بذر و جمعیت‌های یولاف‌وحشی (اهواز، شیراز و کردستان) بودند. نتایج حاکی از آن بود که درصد جوانه‌زنی بر اساس پوشش بذر، نسبت به دما تغییر می‌کند. در دمای متناوب و دماهای ثابت 3 و 5 درجه سانتی‌گراد، در بذر‌های پوشش دار هیچ یک از جمعیت‌های یولاف‌وحشی، جوانه‌زنی رخ نداد و جوانه‌زنی در بذرهای پوشش دار، تنها در دو دمای 10 و 15 درجۀ سانتی‌گراد مشاهده شد؛ به عبارتی، افزایش دما، سبب شروع جوانه‌زنی شد. در دمای متناوب، جمعیت یولاف‌وحشی شیراز، بیشترین درصد جوانه‌زنی (87 درصد) را داشت و جمعیت اهواز، به طولانی ترین زمان برای جوانه‌زنی 50 درصدی نیاز داشت. در تاریکی نیز همانند روشنایی، جوانه‌زنی‌ در بذرهای پوشش دار در دماهای متناوب (دمای روز 10 و شب 5)، 3 و 5 درجه سانتی‌گراد در تاریکی مشاهده نشد. درصد جوانه‌زنی جمعیت‌های یولاف‌وحشی در حالت بدون پوشش، با جوانه‌زنی این جمعیت‌ها در حالت پوشش دار، تفاوت معنی داری را نشان داد که این امر نشان دهندۀ بازتاب عوامل محیطی بر پوسته و چگونگی رفتار جوانه‌زنی است. پیش بینی دقیق و درست از زمان جوانه‌زنی بذرها و سبز‌شدن آن‌ها بر پایۀ بازخورد شرایط محیطی را باید برای بکارگیری روش یا روش‌های کنترلی مؤثر در مدیریت تلفیقی علف‌های‌هرز، در نظر گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Influence of Light, Temperature and Seed Coat on Germination of Different Populations of Wild Oats (Avena ludoviciana)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somayyeh Forozesh 1
  • Saeede Balaghi 2
  • Hassan Alizadeh 3
1 Others
2 nothing
3 Faculty Member of Tehran University
چکیده [English]

Seed of wild oats can persist in the soil for a long time due to its dormancy. Studing the different factors affecting germination behaviors of this weed seeds will result in a properly control program. To quantify the rate of wild oat population's germination response to light and darkness, two experiments were performed in laboratory. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with three replications. Experimental treatments were temperature (10/5, 3, 5, 10 and 15 ◦c), seed coat (with and without), and populations (Ahvaz, Kordestan and Shiraz). The results showed that germination responses to temperature changed based on seed coating. Seeds of wild oat populations were not germinated at constant temperatures of 3 and 5°C and also at fluctuating temperatures and Non-treated seeds germinated at 10 and 15°C. In the other words, increasing temperatures impact the germination velocity. The highest germination percentage (%87) occurred in the 10/5 C, in Shiraz population. Among populations, Ahvaz needed maximum growing degree days to reach 50% germination. Coated seed did not germinate at light or darkness in the 10/5 °C and 3 and 5°C. Significant difference were evident in germination percentage of coated and without coat seeds of wild oat population. This indicates the role of genetic factors and environmental conditions during plant growth and the germination behavior of seeds. Precise and accurate prediction of the time of seed germination and emergence based on feedback of environmental conditions should be considered to performe the effective control method or methods in integrated weed management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Seed coat
  • dormancy
  • sigmoidal model
  • temperature fluctuation
  • integrated weed management
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