پاسخ علف‌هرز جودره (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) به رهیافت‌های مدیریتی در تناوب زراعی گندم ـ نخود ـ گندم در شرایط دیم استان لرستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

مسئول امور استانهای سازمان تحقیقات

چکیده

تاثیر خوشه‌چینی علف‌هرز جودره در کشت گندم و اثر راهکارهای مدیریتی در کشت نخود بر تولید سنبله این علف‌هرز، در تناوب زراعی گندم ـ نخود ـ گندم و در قالب آزمایش سه ساله‌ای در منطقه گریت شهرستان خرم‌آباد، طی سال‌های 1388 تا 1390 مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل اسپلیت و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. خوشه‌چینی علف‌هرز جودره در کشت گندم و زمان کاشت نخود در فصل، کرت‌های اصلی و سطوح مدیریت علف‌هرز در کشت نخود، کرت‌های فرعی آزمایش بودند. آزمایش دارای سه فاکتور شامل (الف) وضعیت ریزش بذر علف‌هرز جودره در کشت گندم در دو سطح بدون خوشه‌چینی و با خوشه‌چینی، (ب) زمان کاشت نخود در دو سطح کشت زودهنگام و کشت دیرهنگام و (ج) مدیریت علف‌هرز در کشت نخود در پنج سطح کاربرد پیش‌رویشی متری‌بیوزین، کاربرد پیش‌رویشی ایمازتاپیر،  کاربرد پس‌رویشی کلتودیم، شاهد عاری از علف‌هرز و شاهد بدون کنترل علف‌هرز بود. در پاییز سال 1389، متناسب با تاریخ کاشت رایج منطقه، گندم در کرت‌های آزمایشی کاشته شد. تعداد سنبله علف‌هرز جودره در کشت گندم در بهار سال 1390 شمارش شد. میانگین تعداد سنبله علف‌هرز جودره در کشت گندم سال سوم بر اثر خوشه‌چینی آن در کشت گندم سال اول 9/71 درصد کاهش یافت. تأخیر در کاشت نخود، افزایش 7/68 درصد تعداد سنبله علف‌هرز جودره در کشت گندم سال بعد را در پی داشت. وجین دستی علف‌های‌هرز در کشت نخود در شرایط خوشه‌چینی و عدم خوشه‌چینی، به ترتیب سبب کاهش 6/94 درصد و 3/88 درصد تعداد سنبله علف‌هرز جودره در کشت گندم در سال سوم شد. به نظر می‌رسد که راهکار صحیح مدیریت علف‌هرز مشکل‌ساز جودره در کشت گندم را می‌بایست در اقدامات زراعی از جمله تناوب زراعی جستجو کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) response to weed management approaches in wheat-chickpea-wheat rotation

چکیده [English]

Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneumC. Koch) population dynamic in a wheat-chickpea-wheat rotation was investigated in a randomized complete block design by split-factorial arrangement with three replications in Great region of Khorramabad, Iran, 2009-2011. Wild barley picking to prevent current year seed rain in wheat and chickpea sowing time in the next season were main plots and weed management treatments in chickpea were sub-plots. In spring 2009, a Wheat field with relatively uniform wild barley infestation to was chosen. The experiment included three factors: (a) wild barley weed seed rain in wheat at two levels: 1- without seed rain, 2- seed rain; (b) chickpea sowing time at two levels: 1- early planting, 2- late planting; and (c) 5 levels of weed management in chickpea: 1- hand weeding, 2- post-emergence application of clethodim, 3- pre-emergence application of metribuzine, 4- pre-emergence application of imazethapyr, and 5- weedy check. In autumn 2010, wheat was planted in experimental plots. In the spring of 2011, wild barley spikes were counted in wheat. Prevention of wild barley seed rain in wheat 71% reduced density and biomass of this weed in the cultivation of chickpeas in the following year. Average wild barley spike numbers in wheat in third year of rotation was declined 71.9% due to no seed rain treatment in wheat in the first year of rotation. Delay in chickpea sowing time increased 68.7% wild barley spike numbers in wheat at the next year. Hand weeding in chickpea in no seed rain, and seed shedding of wild barley in wheat at initial year of the rotation, reduced 94.6% and 88.3% wild barley spike numbers in wheat in third year of rotation, respectively. It seems that the correct strategy for wild barley management in wheat crop could be find in agronomic strategies like crop rotation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chickpea
  • Crop Rotation
  • weed management
  • Wheat
  • wild barley old doi-10.22092/ijws.2019.120103
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