بررسی تاثیر بقایای نیکوسولفورون کاربردی در مزارع ذرت بر گندم Triticum aestivum، جو Hordeum vulgareو کلزا Brassica napus)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم علف‌های دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مشهد

4 موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی حساسیت سه گیاه زراعی کلزا، گندم و جو به پسماند علف‌‌کش نیکوسولفورون در خاک پس از برداشت ذرت، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. این پژوهش به صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. عوامل مورد بررسی در آن به ترتیب شامل کاربرد مواد آلی در خاک در چهار سطح کود گاوی (40 تن در هکتار)، کود ورمی‌کمپوست (10 تن در هکتار)، کود بیولوژیک میکوریزا (250 گرم در هر متر مربع)، به همراه شاهد بدون کاربرد کود آلی. مقادیر کاربرد علف‌‌کش نیکوسولفورون (کروز 4 درصد SC) در دو سطح 80 و 40 گرم ماده موثره در هکتار، و کاربرد و عدم کاربرد ماده افزودنی هیدرومکس (5/0درصد حجمی) بود. در کاشت ذرت هر کرت به دو نیمه کاربرد و عدم کاربرد علف‌‌کش به عنوان شاهد متناظر هر تیمار تقسیم شد. پس از برداشت ذرت، هر کرت به سه نیمه طولی تقسیم و اقدام به کشت گیاهان مذکور شد. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش مقدار مصرف علف‌‌کش نیکوسولفورون در ذرت ارتفاع بوته، تعداد سنبله و تعداد خورجین در متر مربع، تعداد دانه در سنبله و درخورجین، وزن هزار دانه، زیست توده اندام‌های هوایی و عملکرد دانه‌ی گیاهان کلزا، گندم و جو به طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافت، همچنین کاربرد هیدرومکس به همراه علف‌‌کش سبب کاهش معنی‌دار زیست‌توده اندام هوایی شد. از سوی دیگرکاربرد مواد آلی سبب بهبود رشد گیاهان شد و اثرات منفی مربوط به زیست ماندگاری علف‌‌کش نیکوسولفورون را کاهش داد. بطوری که بیشترین عملکرد دانه و کمترین مقدار خسارت حاصل از پسمان علف‌‌کش نیکوسولفورون در گیاهان کلزا، گندم و جو به ترتیب 62، 419 و 446 گرم در متر مربع و 33، 23 و 28 درصداز کاربرد تیمارکود گاوی و کاربرد نیکوسولفورون به مقدار 40 گرم ماده موثره در هکتار بدست آمد. از این نظر،حساسیت گیاهان مورد مطالعه به بقایای علف‌‌کش نیکوسولفورون به صورت کلزا > جو > گندم تعیین شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Effects of soil Residue of Nicosulfuron Herbicide on Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Rapeseed (Brassica napus)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ebrahim mamnoei 1
  • Ebrahim Eizadi darbandi 2
  • Mehdi rastgoo 3
  • Mohammad Ali Baghestani 4
  • mohammad Hassan zade 3
چکیده [English]

To study effects of nicosulfuron herbicide in soil on wheat, barley and rapeseed after corn harvesting, a field experiment was conducted at the research fields of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The experimental design was arranged in completely randomized blocks design with factorial arrangement of treatments with three replications. The factors included organic fertilizers at 4 levels (cow manure at 40 tons ha-1, vermicompost at l0 tons ha-1, 250 g m-2 mycorrhiza and control treatment without fertilizer). Nicosulfuron (Cruz®,4% SC) rates included 40 and 80 g ai ha-1, with and without the adjuvant (HydroMax™) at 0.5% (v/v). Each plot was divided into two halves with and without the herbicide application, in the corn farm. After harvest of corn, each plot was divided into three longitudinal sections and canola, wheat and barley were planted in each section. Results indicated that plant height, number of ears or silique per square meter, number of seeds per ear or silique, 1000-grain weight, shoot biomass and grain yield of rapeseed, wheat and barley significantly reduced when herbicide was applied at recommended dose. The addition of HydroMax with nicosulfuron, reduced aboveground biomass of mentioned crops, significantly. While organic matter decreased herbicide residue of nicosulfuron and increased plant growth. However, the highest seed yield and the lowest percentage of damage were 63, 419 446 g m-2, and 33%, 23%, 28% in rapeseed, wheat and barley respectly, when cow manure was used plus nicosulfuron at 40 g ai ha-1. In this study, crops sensitivity to soil residue of nicosulfuron herbicide in soil was ranked as rapeseed> barley> wheat.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Adjuvants
  • Crop Rotation
  • dry matter
  • Organic fertilizers
  • Residue
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