شناسائی و مطالعه شاخص‌های جمعیتی علف‌های‌هرز (مطالعه موردی: باغ گیاه‌شناسی دانشگاه تبریز)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه اکوفیزیولوژی دانشگاه تبریز

2 گروه زراعت - دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

شناسائی و مطالعه شاخص­های جمعیتی علف­های­هرز مزارع و باغات گام اصلی در مدیریت این گیاهان ناخواسته است. هدف از مطالعه حاضر، شناسائی و بررسی شاخص­های جمعیتی، تشابه و پراکنش گونه­های علف­هرز است. بدین منظور، نمونه‌برداری­هایی بصورت شبکه‌ای (5 متر × 5 متر) توسط کوادرات­های 5/0 متر × 5/0 متر در 13 قطعه مختلف باغ گیاه­شناسی دانشگاه تبریز انجام شد. در مجموع، 52 گونه علف‌هرز از 25 خانواده گیاهی در قطعات مختلف این باغ شناسایی شد. گندمیان (Poaceae) و کاسنی­ها (Asteraceae) بترتیب با شاخص اهمیت خانوادگی 1/113 و 19/54 غالب­ترین تیره­های گیاهی باغ مذکور بودند. جو موشی (Hordeum murinum) و جاروعلفی بامی (Bromus tectorum) با شاخص غالبیت نسبی 38/73 و 11/35، بترتیب اولین و دومین علف­هرز گراس غالب بودند. باباآدم (Arctium lappa) و سیزاب ایرانی (Veronica persica) با شاخص غالبیت نسبی 61/44 و 97/23، بترتیب اولین و دومین علف­هرز دولپه غالب بودند. بیشترین و کمترین تنوع گونه‌ای به ترتیب با شاخص شانون- وینر 41/2 و 61/0، در قطعات 13 و 7 مشاهده شد. بیشترین و کمترین تعداد گونه به ترتیب در قطعات 2 و 5 مشاهده شد. بالا بودن شاخص غالبیت سیمپسون (78/14) در قطعه 1 نشان از حضور گونه‌های مهاجم و کاهش تنوع گونه‌ای در این قطعه دارد. سس درختی (Cuscuta monogyna)، به عنوان انگل شاخساره با شاخص غالبیت نسبی 55/3، از گونه‌های نادر ولی خطرناک باغ است. حضور این علف­هرز انگلی تنها در یک قطعه از 13 قطعه مورد مطالعه، اعلام خطر برای ممانعت از پراکنش آن به سایر قطعات می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification and Survey of Weed Community Indices (Case Study: Botanical Garden of University of Tabriz)

نویسندگان [English]

  • sirous Hassannejad 1
  • sohila pourhaidarghafari 2
چکیده [English]

Ientification and survey of weed distribution in fields and gardens is a main step for the management of these unwanted plants. The objective of the present investigation was identification and assessment of community indices,similarity, and distribution of weed species in the botanical garden of the University of Tabriz. In order to achieve this purpose, data sampling from weed species was performed by grid method (5 m × 5 m) in 13 sections of the botanical garden. Totally, 52 weed species from 25 plant families were recorded in different sections of the garden. Poaceae and Asteraceae with family dominance indices of 131/1 and 54/19, respectively, were the dominant plant families. Wall barley (Hordeum murinum) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) with dominant indices of 73/38 and 35/11, were the first and the second dominant grass weeds. Burdock (Arctium lappa) and Persian speedwell (Veronica persica) with dominant indices of 44/61 and 23/97, were the first and the second dominant Dicot weeds. Maximum and minimum species diversity with Shannon-Wiener indices of 2.41 and 0.61 were observed in sections 13 and 7, respectively. Maximum and minimum richness were found in sections 2 and 5, respectively. The highest amount of Simpson dominance index in section 1 (14.78), indicates dominance of some weed species and reduction in uniformity of species distribution and species diversity in this section. Dodder (Cuscuta monogyna), as an important shoot parasitic weed, with relative dominance index of 3.55 out of 400, was one of the invasive weed species present in this garden. Presence of this parasitic weed in only one section of 13 surveyed sections, is an alarm for other sections.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Botanical garden
  • relative dominance
  • richness
  • species diversity
  • weed
Abd El- Gani, M.M. and Amer, W.M. 2003. Soil- vegetation relationships in a coastal desert plain of southern Sinai, Egypt. J. Arid Env. 55: 607 – 628.

Blanco-Moreno, J.M., Chamorro, L. and Sans, F.X. 2006. Spatial and temporal patternsof Lolium rigidumAvena sterilis mixed populations in a cereal field. Weed Res.46: 207–218.

Booth, B.D., Murphy, S.D. and Swanton, C.J. 2003. Weed ecology in natural and agricultural systems. CABI Publishing. 303 Pp.

Clay, S.A., Lems, G.J. and Clay, D.E. 1999. Sampling weed spatial variability on afieldwide scale.Weed Sci. 47: 674–81.

Davis, P.H. 1965-1985. Flora of Turkey. Edinburgh at the University of Press. V: 1-10

Frick, B. and Thomas A.G. 1992. Weed survey in different tillage systems in Southeastern Ontario field crops. Can. J. Plant Sci. 72: 1337-1347.

Hamouz, P., Hamouzova, K. Holec, J. and Tyšer, L. 2013. Impact of site-specific weedmanagement on herbicide savings and winter wheat yield. Plant, Soil and Env. 59: 101–7.

Hassannejad, S. 2010. Identification and weed mapping of weeds in wheat, barley, and alfalfa fields of East Azerbaijan with geographical information system (GIS). PhD Thesis (In Persian).

Hassannejad, S. and Porheidar Ghafarbi, S. 2013. Weed flora survey in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) fields of Shabestar (northwest of Iran). Arch. Agro. Soil Sci: 971-991.

Hassannejad, S., Porheidar Ghafarbi, S., Abbasvand, E., and Ghisvandi, B. 2014. Quantifying the effects of altitude and soil texture on weed species distribution in wheat fields of Tabriz, Iran. J. B. Env. Sci. (JBES): 5: 590-596.

Kochaki, A., Nasiri Mahallati, M., Tabrizi, L., Azizi, G., and Jahan, M. 2006. Assessment of species diversity, functional, and structure of weeds communities in wheat and beta fields of different provinces of country. Iranian J. Agro. Exp. (In Persian). 1: 124-129.

Koller, M. and Lanini, W.T. 2005. Site specific herbicide application based on weed maps provideeffective control. California Agri. 59: 182 – 187.

Lops, J. and Smilauer, P. 2003. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological data using CANOCO. Cambridge university press. 283 Pp.

Mirdavoodi, H.R. and ZahediPor, H.A. 2005. Determination of species diversity suitable model for plant communities of Migan disert of Arak and the effects of some ecological agents on that. J. Pazh. Sazan. (In Persian). 68: 56-65.

Nordmeyer, H. and Dunker, M. 1999. Variable weed densities and soil properties in a weed mapping concept for patchy weed control. Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Precision Agriculture, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, Pp. 453–462.

Poggio, S.L., Sattorre, E.H., and Fuente, E.B. 2004. Structure of weed communities occurring in pea and wheat crops in the Rolling pampa (Argentina). Agriculture, Eco. Env. 103, 225-235.

Porheidar Ghafarbi, S., and Hassannejad, S. 2013. Identification and survey of weed community indices in alfalfa fields of Shabestar. Sus. Agri. J. Vol. 33: 17- 87.

Qian, H. 2009. Beta diversity in relation to dispersal ability for vascular plants in North America. J. Biogeography. 18: 327 – 332.

Rechinger, K.H. 1963-2007. Flora Iranica. Akademische Durck-u.Verlagsanstalt Graz-Austria. V: 1-170.

Thomas, A.G. 1985. Weed survey system used in Saskatchewan for cereal and oilseed crops. Weed Sci. 33: 34-43.

Thomas, A.G. and Dale, M.R.T. 1991a. Weed survey system used in Saskatchewan for cereal and oil seed crops. Weed Sci. 33: 34-43.

Thomas, A.G. and Dale, M.R.T. 1991b. Weed community structure in spring-seeded crops in Manitoba. Can. J. P. Sci. 71: 1069-1080.

Tracy, B., Renne, I., Gerrish, j., and Sanderson M. 2004. Effects of plant diversity on invasion of weed species in experimental pasture communities. Basic Appli. Eco. 5: 543-550.

Van der Maarel, E. and Franklin, J. 2013. Vegetation Ecology. 2nd end.Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.

Wilson, B. S. and Brain, P. 1991. Long term stability of Alopecurus myosuroides within cereal fields. Weed Res. 31: 367–73.