تأثیر الگوهای مختلف کشت مخلوط سیر (Allium sativum) و نخود‌فرنگی (Pisum sativum) بر شاخص‌های جمعیتی علف‌های‌هرز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه گنبد کاووس

2 گروه زراعت دانشگاه ساری

چکیده

این تحقیق در پاییز 1392 به صورت کشت مخلوط دو گیاه سیر و نخود فرنگی در دو منطقه گنبدکاووس و ساری، جهت ارزیابی تغییرات تنوع، جمعیت و زیست­توده علف­های­هرز در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی و با سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی ترکیب­های مختلف کشت مخلوط در نه سطح شامل کشت خالص سیر، کشت خالص نخود فرنگی، مخلوط جایگزینی 25 : 75، 50 :50، 75 : 25 درصد، مخلوط افزایشی 25 + 100، 50 +100، 75 + 100، 100 + 100 درصد نخود­فرنگی و سیر در نظر گرفته شد. بر اساس نتایج، زیست­توده علف­های­هرز در شهرستان ساری با میانگین 5/2080 بیشتر از منطقه گنبد کاووس با میانگین 4/1479 گرم در متر مربع بود. هر چند علف­های­هرز در شهرستان گنبد کاووس (88/44 بوته در متر مربع) از تراکم بیشتری برخوردار بودند. بیشترین وزن زیست­توده (3/3387 گرم در متر مربع) و تراکم علف‌های‌هرز (83/61 عدد در متر مربع) به ترتیب به کشت خالص سیر در شهرستان ساری و مخلوط جایگزینی 75% نخودفرنگی+ 25% سیر در شهرستان گنبد کاووس تعلق گرفت. میانگین شاخص غنای گونه­ای مارگالف، منهینک و شاخص تنوع شانون-واینر در شهرستان ساری (به­ترتیب: 33/1، 01/1 و 96/1) در مقایسه با شهرستان گنبدکاووس (به­ترتیب 86/، 7/0 و 03/1) بالاتر بود. در مقایسه، دو شاخص غالبیت سیمپسون (63/0) در کشت خالص نخود فرنگی و شاخص یکنواختی شانون-واینر (89/0) در تیمار جایگزینی کاشت 75% نخود فرنگی+ 25% سیر در گنبد کاووس دارای مقدار بیشتری بود. شاخص تنوع برگر-پارگر (77/0) در کشت خالص سیر در ساری، شاخص تنوع شانون- واینر (42/1) و شاخص تنوع سیمپسون (94/3) هر دو در تیمار جایگزینی کاشت 75% نخودفرنگی+ 25% سیر در ساری از مقدار بالاتری برخوردار بودند. در مجموع، هرچند بین دو منطقه به دلیل ویژگی­هایاقلیمی و خاکی، شاخص­های تنوع علف‌های‌هرز متفاوت بودند اما الگوهای کشت مخلوط در مقایسه با نظام تک­کشتی موجب افزایش تنوع و کاهش غالبیت علف‌های‌هرز در دو منطقه شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Different Garlic (Allium sativum) and peas (Pisum sativum) Intercropping patterns on Weed Population Indices

نویسندگان [English]

  • Arastoo Abasian 1
  • Ali nakhzarimoghadam 1
  • Hemmatollah Pirdashti 2
  • Ebrahim Gholamalipour Alamdari 1
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted as intercropping of garlic and peas to assess the diversity, bio-mass, and population of weeds in two regions of Gonbad Kavoos and Sari during autumn 2013. The experiment was implemented in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications in both regions. Different combinations of intercropping were considered in nine levels of garlic and peas pure cultures, replacement intercropping of 75:25, 50:50, 25:75%, and additive intercropping of 100+25, 100+50, 100+75, 100+100 for garlic and peas. Results showed that the average biomass value of weeds in Sari (2080.5 gm-2) was greater than in Gonbad region. However, a higher weed density (44.88 m-2) was observed in Gonbad. The highest levels of biomass (3387.3 gm-2) and density (61.83 m-2) of weeds were measured for garlic pure culture in Sari and the intercropping replacement of 75% peas:25% garlic in Gonbad Kavoos. Mean value of Margalef species richness index, Menhinick index, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were calculated as 1.33, 1.01, and 1.96 in Sari, respectively, which were higher than 0.86, 0.7, and 1.03 in Gonbad. By contrast, the Simpson's dominance index (0.63) for peas pure culture and Shannon-Wiener evenness index (0.89) to replacement intercropping of 75% peas: 25% garlic were greater in Gonbad Kavoos. Berger-Prager diversity index (0.77) for pure garlic culture, and both Shannon diversity (1.42) and Simpson's diversity (3.94) indices for replacement intercropping of 75% peas: 25% garlic were greater in Sari. There was a difference between the two regions in terms of climatic and edaphic characteristics which resulted differences in weed diversity indices, intercropping increased diversity while reducing dominance as compared to the monoculture cropping system in both regions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biomass
  • Density
  • Dominance
  • evenness
  • Species richness
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