مدیریت علف‌های هرز سیاه‌دانه (Nigella sativa) با استفاده از مالچ زنده جو پاییزه (Hordeum vulgare) و شبدر برسیم (Trifolium alexandrium)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران

2 استادیار پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر گیاهان پوششی جو (Hordeum vulgare) و شبدر برسیم (Trifolium alexandrium)
 بر کنترل علف‌های‌هرز سیاه‌دانه (Nigella sativa) و همچنین بررسی بهترین زمان کف­بر نمودن گیاهان پوششی، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 96-95 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران، در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل شاهد بدون گیاه پوششی و وجین کامل (T1)، شاهد بدون گیاه پوششی بدون وجین (T2)، جو کف­بر اول (T3)، جو کف­بر دوم (T4)، شبدر کف­بر اول (T5) و شبدر کف­بر دوم (T6) بود. کف­بر اول، پس از استقرار سیاه­دانه و کف­بر دوم، قبل از به گل رفتن گیاه پوششی انجام شد. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که بیشترین وزن خشک کل علف­های‌هرز به میزان 444 گرم در مترمربع، مربوط به تیمار شاهد بدون گیاه پوششی بدون وجین (T2) در زمان نمونه‌برداری دوم و کمترین وزن خشک کل علف­های‌هرز به میزان 28 گرم در مترمربع، مربوط به تیمار شبدر کف‌بر اول (T5) در زمان نمونه‌برداری اول بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار (T5) و تیمار شاهد (T1) به ترتیب با میانگین 527 و 446 کیلوگرم در هکتار و کمترین عملکرد، مربوط به تیمار شاهد (T2) با میانگین 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار مشاهده شد. نتایج کلی نشان داد که تیمار (T5) توانست در زمان نمونه‌برداری دوم، زیست‌توده علف‌های‌هرز را به‌میزان 4/90 درصد نسبت به شاهد بدون وجین علف هرز کاهش دهد. همچنین گیاه پوششی شبدربرسیم، نه ‌تنها با سیاه‌دانه رقابت نکرد بلکه توانست عملکرد را نسبت به شاهد بدون گیاه پوششی و وجین کامل (T1)، افزایش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Weed management of Black seed (Nigella sativa) using barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) living mulchs

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Tavakoli 1
  • Fatemaeh Benakashani 2
  • Elias Soltani 3
  • Majid Ghorbani Javid 3
1 Msc Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht
2 Assistant professor of Weed Science, University of Tehran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht
چکیده [English]

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) cover crops, and their cutting time on black seed (Nigella sativa) weed management in 2016-2017 at research field of the College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran. The experiment designe was randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Treatments were: T1, no cover plant-weed free; T2, no cover plant- weed infest; T3, barley-first cutting; T4, barley-second cutting; T5, clover-first cutting and T6, clover-second cutting. The first and the second cutting were done after Black seed establishment and before flowering stage of cover crops, respectively. Results showed that the highest weed biomass was 444 gr.m-2 obtained from T2 treatment at t the second sampling time and the lowest weed biomass was 28 gr m-2, related to first cutting clover treatment (T5), at the first sampling time. The highest grain yields were 527 and 446 kg.ha-1, observed in treatment (T5) and control treatment (T1) respectively and the lowest yield was obtained from control (T2) with a mean of 100 (kg ha-1). Overall, results showed that T5 treatment at the second sampling time reduced weed biomass 90.4% compared to without weeding control. In addition, the berseem clover plant not only did not compete with black seed, but also increased yield compared to the without cover plant control (T1).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biomass
  • Common purslane
  • medicinal plant
  • plant density
  • redroot pigweed
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