زمان مدیریت علف های هرز گاوپنبه در مزارع سویا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری

2 استاد دانشگاه

چکیده

گاوپنبه یکی از مهم‌ترین علف‌های هرز تابستانه در مزارع سویا می باشد. به منظور یافتن دوره بحرانی کنترل علف هرز گاوپنبه در دو رقم سویا با الگوهای رشدی متفاوت (رقم ویلیامز به عنوان رقم رشد نامحدود و رقم سحر یا پرشین به عنوان رقم رشد محدود) آزمایشی در دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان در سال 2007 با استفاده از طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار صورت گرفت. برای تعیین دوره بحرانی گاوپنبه از دو سری تیمار استفاده شد؛ تیمارهای تزاحم که در آنها تا مراحل  دو برگی، چهار برگی، شش برگی، اوایل گلدهی و اوایل غلاف‌بندی سویا، به گاوپنبه اجازه تزاحم داده شد و از آن پس تا انتهای فصل رشد تمامی علف‌های‌هرز کنترل شدند. در کنار این تیمارها یک تیمار به عنوان شاهد تزاحم در نظر گرفته شد که به گاوپنبه اجازه حضور در تمام طول فصل رشد داده شد. سری دوم، تیمارهای کنترل بودند که در آنها تا مراحل رشدی یاد شده علف‌های‌هرز کنترل و از آن پس به گاوپنبه تا انتهای فصل رشد اجازه تزاحم داده شد. این تیمارها نیز همراه با شاهد کنترل (کنترل تمامی علف‌های‌هرز در طول فصل رشد) بودند. اثر تیمارهای کنترل بر ارتفاع نهایی سویا، تعداد شاخه جانبی در بوته، شاخص سطح برگ، وزن خشک، عملکرد و تعداد غلاف در هر بوته سویا معنی دار گشت اما بر تعداد دانه در غلاف و وزن صد دانه سویا تأثیر معنی‌داری نگذاشت. اثر تیمارهای تزاحم نیز بر تمام صفات فوق به غیر از وزن صد دانه معنی دار گردید. حساس‌ترین جزء عملکرد به حضور گاوپنبه، تعداد غلاف در بوته بود. نتایج این تحقیق  بر اساس معادلات برازش داده شده گامپرتز و لجستیک بر حسب درجه-روز رشد، نشان داد که دوره بحرانی کنترل علف هرز گاوپنبه در دو رقم سویا با 5% کاهش عملکرد مجاز بین مراحل دو برگی (14 روز پس از کاشت، معادل 260 CGDD) تا  اوایل گلدهی (51 روز پس از کاشت، معادل 943 CGDD) قرار دارد و در هر دو رقم با در نظر گرفتن 10% کاهش عملکرد مجاز دوره بحرانی بین مراحل سه برگی (18 روز پس از کاشت، 320 CGDD) و شش برگی (41 روز پس از کاشت، 752 CGDD) می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Timing of Velvetleaf Management in Soybean (Glycine Max (L) Merrill)

نویسندگان [English]

  • zahra hatami 1
  • nasser latifi 2
  • hossein rezvani 2
  • ebrahim zeinali 2
چکیده [English]

Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic) is one of the most important warm season weeds in soybean fields. To the aim of this study is to determine the critical period of velvetleaf control in two cultivars of soybean, Williams as indeterminate and Persian as determinate,with different growth patterns. . Theexperiment was conducted at the University of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Gorgan, Iran in 2007 using a randomized complete block design along with four replicates. The experiments consisted of two sets of treatments; one set was to keep the plot weed-free until the growth stages of 2- leaf (V2), 4- leaf (V4), 6- leaf (V6) stages, beginning of flowering (R1) and beginning of pod set (R3). The second set was interference treatments that velvetleaf was allowed to grow within the plot throughout the above-mentioned growth stages. Weedy and weed-free checks were also included in the study. The effect of control treatments were significant on final height, branch number per plant,  leaf area index, dry matter, yield, and pod number per plant, while seed number in pod and 100-seed weights of soybean were not significantly affected. The effects of interference treatments were significant on all traits except 100-seed weights. Using the Gompertz and Logistic equations it was found that the critical period of controlling velvetleaf in both cultivars under study, considering 5% allowed decrease in yield, was between 260 to 943 CGDD or 14-51 DAE, which is approximately from 2-leaf stage to beginning of flowering. With a 10% allowed decrease, is the number would be between 320 to 752 CGDD or 18-41 DAE, which is approximately 3 to 6-leaf growth stage for both cultivars.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soybean
  • velvetleaf
  • Yield component
  • competitive periods
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