برهمکنش همزیستی میکوریزا و انواع مالچ بر بانک بذر علف ‌های‌هرز در کنگر فرنگی (Cynara scolymus L)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

این پژوهش، به‌منظور مطالعه اثر تلقیح میکوریزا و کاربرد مالچ­ها بر کاهش تراکم بانک بذر در محصول کنگر فرنگی (Cynara scolymus L. در سال­های زراعی 96-1395 و 97-1396 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زنجان، به صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تلقیح با میکوریزا گونه Rhizoglomus intraradices (تلقیح میکوریزایی و عدم تلقیح میکوریزایی) در کرت­های اصلی و انواع مالچ­های زنده (شبدر برسیم و خلر) و غیر زنده (مالچ پلاستیکی دو رنگ (مشکی-نقره­ای)، کاه و کلش گندم)، وجین کامل علف­‌های‌هرز ، وجین یک مرحله­ای و بدون وجین در کرت­های فرعی قرار گرفتند. یافته­ها نشان داد که بیشترین تراکم بذر علف­‌های‌هرز به میزان 4453 بذر، از تیمار بدون وجین در شرایط بدون تلقیح با قارچ میکوریزا در سال زراعی 97-1396 به‌دست  آمد. تیمار مالچ پلاستیک نقره­ای-مشکی در شرایط تلقیح با میکوریزا و طی سال آزمایشی 96-1395، با 573 بذر، کمترین تراکم بانک بذر را دارا بود. بین فراوانی بانک بذر و فراوانی گیاهچه )85/0=R2)، همبستگی بالایی وجود داشت، بنابراین می­توان تلقیح با میکوریزا و کاربرد مالچ­های زنده و غیر زنده را به‌عنوان راهکاری جهت کاهش تراکم بانک بذر پیشنهاد نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Interactive effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis and mulches on the weed seed bank in artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Rezaei 1
  • Majid Pouryousef 2
  • Alireza Yousefi 2
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran,
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran,
چکیده [English]

To study the possibility of decreasing weed seed bank of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) by mycorrhizal inoculation and mulches, a three replicated split plot design based on randomized complete block design was conducted during 2017 and 2018 at the research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan. Two levels of inoculation (inoculation with mycorrhiza and non- inoculation) were considered as the main plots and a variety of living mulches (Trifolium alexandrinum and Lathyrus sativus), polyethylene film (silver-black color), wheat straw, consistently hand weeding throughout the growing season, once hand weeding and no-weeding were considered as sub plots. Results revealed that the highest density of weeds seed (4453 seeds) was recorded in no-weeding treatment under non-mycorrhizal inoculation conditions in 2018. The lowest weeds seed density was recorded in silver-black plastic mulch treatment under mycorrhizal inoculation conditions in 2017. Seed frequency showed significant positive correlations with seedling frequencies (R2=0.85); therefore, mycorrhizal inoculation and living and non-living mulches application can be suggested as a solution to decrease the seed bank density.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hand weeding
  • living mulch
  • mycorrhizal inoculation
  • plastic mulch
  • wheat straw
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