تاثیر نوع کشت، زمین دارای بقایای گندم و زمین بدون بقایا بر الگوی رویش قیاق (Sorghum halepanse L.) بذری و ریزومی در منطقه کرج

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف از این مطالعه بررسی الگوی رویش قیاق بذری و ریزومی در زمین بدون بقایا و زمین دارای بقایای گندم و همچنین تاثیر کانوپی سیب زمینی و ذرت بر الگوی رویش قیاق بذری و ریزومی بود. به این منظور در قسمتی از مزرعه پزوهشی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران که آلوده به علف‌هرز قیاق بود، چهار مزرعه در مجاورت هم انتخاب شد: زمین بدون پوشش (آیش)، زمین پوشیده از بقایای گندم، ذرت و سیب زمینی.  شمارش گیاهچه‌های بذری و ریزومی به فواصل هفتگی تا انتهای فصل ادامه یافت. نتایج نشان داد روند رویش تجمعی قیاق‌های بذری در زمین دارای بقای گندم نسبت به سایر تیمارها در زمان دمای بالاتری (1278 درجه روز رشد) به حداکثر رسید. همچنین نرخ رویش گیاهچه‌های بذری به ازاء دریافت زمان دما، در زمین دارای بقایای گندم بیشتر بود (974 گیاهچه). زمان دمای مورد نیاز برای رسیدن به 50 درصد رویش قیاق‌های ریزومی در مزرعه ذرت از همه تیمارها بیشتر بود (1118 درجه روز رشد). بیشترین رویش تجمعی قیاق‌های بذری و ریزومی به ترتیب با 1034 گیاهچه و 1541 گیاهچه، در زمین بدون بقایا بدست آمد. رویش گیاهچه‌های بذری زیر کانوپی سیب زمینی و ذرت به سرعت متوقف شد در حالی که ظهور جوانه‌های ریزومی قیاق تا زمان برداشت ادامه داشت. این موضوع نشان می‌دهد که سبز شدن قیاق‌های بذری در اوایل فصل سریعتر از قیاق ریزومی صورت می‌گیرد و با انجام شخم در ابتدای فصل می‌توان از سبز شدن بخش زیادی از آنها جلوگیری نمود

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Cropping Type, Land Covered with Wheat Residue and without Residue on Emergence Pattern of Seedling and Rhizome Sprouting Shoot of Sorghum halepense L. in Karaj Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Dashti
  • Hamid Rahimian Mashhadi
  • Mostafa Oveisi
چکیده [English]

In order to survey emergence pattern of seedling and ramet of Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense), an experiment was conducted in the research field of department of agriculture of Tehran University. Evaluations were performed in corn and potato' fields, and two fallow fields (with and without wheat residual that we say hereafter bare field). Johnsongrass seedlings and rhizome sprouting shoots were counted   at one-week intervals throughout the season. Results indicated that in residual treatment, cumulative emergence of seedling of S.halepense reached to maximum amount in upper thermal time (1278 TT) in comparison with other treatments. Also in the field with residual, rate of emergence of seedlings per unit of thermal time was more (974 seedlings). In corn field required TT to reach 50% rhizome emergence was more than other treatments (1118 TT). The most cumulative emergence of seedling and rhizome shoot observed in bare soil treatment, was 1034 and 1541 seedlings, respectively. Emergence of seedlings quickly stoped under corn and potato canopy while emergence of rhizome shoots continued to the end of the season. The present study demonstrated that the emergence of Johnson grass seedlings is faster rhizomes in early season and thus early plowing at the beginning of season can be an effective practice to control its emergence.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sorghume halepense L
  • emergence pattern
  • Tillage
  • TT
  • Weibull model
  • bare soil
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